30.000 – Body by Calvin Coolidge



Year(s) Discussed: 1872-1933

How much do you really know about America’s 30th president? Did you even remember that he was a president? In this show Jess and Joe explore the little known facts of one our most overlooked presidents in history. Sit back and relax as we turn an often forgotten president into one of your new favorites. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://cuttingclasspodcast.com

Featured Image: “Calvin Coolidge the Bodybuilder”, courtesy of the Cutting Class Podcast


2.18 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To Cotton Tufts, 1 January 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0548. [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2019]
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Ford, Worthington Chauncey, ed. Writings of John Quincy Adams, Vol. II 1796-1801. New York: The MacMillan Co, 1913.
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, KS; Manhattan, KS; and Wichita, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1974 [1974].
  • Miller, Hunter. “The Barbary Treaties 1786-1816, Tunis 1797: Hunter Miller’s Notes.” Avalon Project. Yale University. Source: Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America. Edited by Hunter Miller, Volume 2, Documents 1-40 : 1776-1818, Washington : Government Printing Office, 1931. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/bar1797n.asp#n5 [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].

Featured Image: “USS Constellation engaging la Vengeance” by Irwin John Bevan, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.18 – New Year, New à Vous



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1800

The French Directory falls, and the three US peace commissioners are left with many questions as to how to proceed before they even arrive in Paris. Meanwhile, the US government considers a change in its policy towards the Barbary States, and the USS Constellation engages French naval forces once more in the Caribbean. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Les trois consuls de la Constitution de l’an VIII (de gauche à droite : Cambacérès, Bonaparte, Lebrun)” by Henri-Nicolas Van Gorp [c. 1803], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.17 – Source Notes



Special thanks to James Early for providing the intro quote for this episode! Be sure to check out Presidential Fight Club and Key Battles of the Civil War!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 18 December 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0531. [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 21 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3991. [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Oliver Ellsworth, 22 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3997. [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 12 October 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0471. [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “Third Annual Address to Congress [3 Dec 1799].” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/200624. [Last Accessed: 20 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To United States Senate, 23 December 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4100. [Last Accessed: 24 Feb 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Buchanan, James. “Alfred Moore.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 56-60.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Edvinsson, Rodney. Historical Currency Converter (test version 1.0). http://www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html. [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2019)
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Moore, Alfred.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 560.
  • Ellsworth, Oliver. “To John Adams, 18 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3983. [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 21 October 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-23-02-0492. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 23, April 1799 – October 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 544–547.] [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, [22] December 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0103. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 116–117.] [Last Accessed: 24 Feb 2019]
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York and London: Free Press, 2009.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Memorandum on Attendance of the Vice President, [after 29 December 1799],” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-31-02-0238. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 31, 1 February 1799 – 31 May 1800, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 280–282.] [Last Accessed: 24 Feb 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lee, Charles. “To John Adams, 6 October 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4011. [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Moody, Danny. “James Iredell.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 26-30.
  • Newman, Paul Douglas. Fries’s Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 24 October 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0312. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 362–364.] [Last Accessed: 18 Feb 2019]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].
  • US Department of State. “State House, Trenton August-November 1797, 1798, 1799.” Buildings of the Department of State. https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/buildings/section18. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]
  • Washington, George. “To James McHenry, 17 November 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0348. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 409–410.] [Last Accessed: 17 Feb 2019]
  • Whichard, Willis P. Justice James Iredell. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “George Washington Mourning Tableau” by Pember & Luzarder [c. 1800], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.17 – Some Awful Crisis



Year(s) Discussed: 1798-1799

In Trenton, Adams confronted his Cabinet as well as Gen. Alexander Hamilton over the peace mission to France before the government moved back to Philadelphia for one last winter. After the new session of Congress began in December 1799, news arrived which was described as a national tragedy and had many wondering what lay in store for the US as a new century dawned. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Representation of the great fire at New York” by Franz Xaver Habermann [c. 1776], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.16 – Source Notes



Special thanks to David Montgomery of The Siècle for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 8 May 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3490. [Last Accessed: 3 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “Proclamation 10—Suspending, as to St. Domingo, the Restraints of the Act of 1799.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202813. [Last Accessed: 10 Feb 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 6 August 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3852. [Last Accessed: 30 Jan 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Golinski, Jan. “Debating the Atmospheric Constitution: Yellow Fever and the American Climate.” Eighteenth-Century Studies. 49:2 [2016] 149-165.
  • Henry, Patrick. “To John Adams, 16 April 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3441. [Last Accessed: 3 Feb 2019]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Kornfeld, Eve. “Crisis in the Capital: The Cultural Significance of Philadelphia’s Great Yellow Fever Epidemic.” Pennsylvania History. 51:3 [July 1984] 189-205.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 15 May 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3513. [Last Accessed: 3 Feb 2019]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 18 May 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3534. [Last Accessed: 3 Feb 2019]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 23 August 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3916. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 9 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3960. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]
  • Timothy. “To John Adams, 10 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3961. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 11 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3964. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Stoddert, Benjamin. “To John Adams, 3 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3941. [Last Accessed: 13 Feb 2019]
  • Stoddert, Benjamin. “To John Adams, 13 September 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3971. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].
  • US Department of State. “State House, Trenton August-November 1797, 1798, 1799.” Buildings of the Department of State. https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/buildings/section18. [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2019]

Featured Image: “Général Jean Etienne Championnet” by Jean-Sébastien Rouillard [c. 1836], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.16 – High Noon in Trenton



Year(s) Discussed: 1798-1799

New unrest in the government of France in 1799 presented President Adams with an important decision as to whether to continue with his peace overtures. Meanwhile, competing agendas within his own administration prompt one of Adams’s Cabinet members to urge him to end his sojourn in Quincy as yet another yellow fever epidemic strikes Philadelphia. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Drawing of the New Jersey state capitol at Trenton” [c. 1879], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.15 – Source Notes



Please take a moment to vote for 45 and Counting on WFAE’s Queen City Podquest! You can vote once a day, each day through Sunday, February 17th, 2019, and that couple of seconds of your day will help me to share presidential history with a greater audience! Vote early, vote often, vote 45 and Counting!

  • Adams, John. “To Tristram Dalton, 1 July 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2038. [Last Accessed: 21 Jan 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 7 March 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0367. [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 11 March 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0371. [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2019]
  • Adams, John. “Proclamation 9—Law and Order in the Counties of Northampton, Montgomery, and Bucks, in the State of Pennsylvania.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202751 [Last Accessed: 21 Jan 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Charles Lee, 29 March 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3393. [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To James McHenry, 18 March 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0344. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 552–553.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To James McHenry, 18 May 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-23-02-0110. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 23, April 1799 – October 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 122–123.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To James McHenry, 27 June 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-23-02-0236. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 23, April 1799 – October 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 227–228.] [Last Accessed: 27 Jan 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Archibald Stuart, 13 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-31-02-0022. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 31, 1 February 1799 – 31 May 1800, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 33–36.] [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Edmund Pendleton, 14 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-31-02-002. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 31, 1 February 1799 – 31 May 1800, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 36–39.] [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2019]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • MacPherson, William. “To Alexander Hamilton, 25 March 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0364. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 584–585.] [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2019]
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Newman, Paul Douglas. Fries’s Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 25 March 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0333. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 436–437.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2019]
  • Welch, Richard E, Jr. Theodore Sedgwick, Federalist: A Political Portrait. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1965.
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 1 April 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-23-02-0001. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 23, April 1799 – October 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 1–3.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2019]

Featured Image: “Charles Lee” by Cephas Giovanni Thompson [c. prior to 1888], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.15 – Hot Time, Summer in the Country



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1799

John Adams makes a fateful decision that threatens his administration and its ability to react quickly to developing events. Meanwhile, General James Wilkinson’s past collusion with the Spanish is discovered by a government agent in the Mississippi Territory. Closer to home, Fries’s Rebellion comes to a close as harassment of Democratic-Republican newspaper editors ramps up. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Watercolor of Peacefield Before the 1800 Addition” by E Malcom [c. 1798], courtesy of Wikipedia


A Humble Appeal



A brief, humble appeal from your friendly neighborhood podcaster for you to take a couple of seconds out of your day, each day from now through Sunday, February 17th, 2019 to support my personal mission of podcasting and history podcasting in general by voting for 45 and Counting in WFAE’s Queen City PodQuest by going to the following link and selecting “Vote Now” just below the logo: https://queencitypodquest.strutta.me/gallery?entry_id=1346530