1.23 – Effigies and Efficacies



Year(s) Discussed: 1793-1794

James Monroe arrives in France as major changes are occurring in the governance of the nation – Robespierre is out, and the Thermadorians are in. Back in the US, Washington and Hamilton ride at the head of an army west to put an end to the Whiskey Rebellion once and for all, but they will be shocked by what they find as they draw nearer to Pittsburgh. Meanwhile, as we near the end of 1794, the longest serving member of Washington’s Cabinet considers his future. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: James Monroe by Louis Semé [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.22 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche.

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1962 [1923].
  • Booraem, Hendrik, V. A Child of the Revolution: William Henry Harrison and His World, 1773-1798. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2012.
  • Bradford, William. “To George Washington, 17 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0389. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 568–571.] [Last Accessed: 27 November 2017]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Eid, Leroy V. “American Indian Military Leadership: St. Clair’s 1791 Defeat.” The Journal of Military History. 57:1. Jan 1993. p. 71-88.
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Harrison, William Henry. A Discourse on the Aborigines of the Ohio Valley in which the Opinions of Its Conquest in the Seventeenth Century by the Iroquois or Six Nations, Supported by Cadwallader Colden of New York, Gov. Thomas Pownall of Massachusetts, Dr. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Hon. DeWitt Clinton of New York, and Judge John Haywood of Tennessee, are Examined and Contested. Chicago: Fergus Printing Company, 1883 [1839].
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Hurt, R Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
  • Jay, John. “To Alexander Hamilton, 19 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 390–391.] [Last Accessed: 6 Nov 2017]
  • Johnston, Henry P. The Correspondence and Public Letters of John Jay, Volume IV: 1794-1826. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, [1890].
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756-1805. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 26 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0075. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 85–86.] [Last Accessed: 9 Nov 2017]
  • Moseley, E.L. “Long Time Forecasts of Ohio River Floods.” The Ohio Journal of Science. 39:4 [July 1939] 220-231.
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].

Featured Image: Portrait of George Washington in Masonic Regalia by William Joseph Williams [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.22 – My, What Big Treaties You Have



Year(s) Discussed: 1793-1794

Developments on both sides of the Atlantic keep the administration busy in 1794. Prominent envoys are sent to both Britain and France in order to avert the US being drawn into conflict with a foreign power. General Wayne and his troops march into action in the Northwest Territory. Even Washington is getting into the action as he heads into the field to face the rebels in western Pennsylvania. Though only five years old, the new government under the Constitution is tested like never before. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured image: John Jay, copy based on an original by Gilbert Stuart, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.215 – Source Notes



For more information on Feather Schwartz Foster, please visit her website at www.featherfoster.com check out her blog at featherfoster.wordpress.com, or reach out to her on Twitter @feathersfoster.

Sources used for this episode include:

  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017.
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York: Free Press, 2009.
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

1.215 – Martha Washington



Year(s) Discussed: 1731-1802

In this special episode, we take a closer look at Martha Washington, the woman who would serve as the nation’s first First Lady before the term was even crafted for the role. To help us better understand her life and her role in American history, I am joined in this episode by Presidential and First Ladies historian Feather Schwartz Foster who shares her knowledge and insights about Martha’s strengths and shortcomings, the Washingtons’ marriage, how Martha approached her public and household duties after her husband took the oath of office in 1789, and what impact Martha had on crafting the role of the First Lady.

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche, and special thanks to Toyin, Kato, Barbara, Mark, and Alex for providing the intro quotes.

This episode is dedicated to the memory of my mother, Betty Landry, and is being released on what would have been her 68th birthday.

The music between sections are selections from Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto 1st Movement (Allegro), performed by Markus Krumpöck and the Merkur Orchester Wiener Neustadt conducted by Willibald Zwittkovits.

Sources used in this episode as well as links to Feather’s website and social media can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.21 – Source Notes



George Cabot by Samuel Griswold Goodrich [c. 1856], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

Special thanks to Ben Jacobs of the Wittenberg to Westphalia Podcast for providing the intro

  • Allen, W B; and Seth Ames, eds. Works of Fisher Ames: Volume II. Indianapolis, IN: LibertyClassics, 1983 [1854].
  • Barnhart, John D; and Dorothy L Riker. Indiana to 1816: The Colonial Period. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Historical Bureau & Indiana Historical Society, 1971.
  • Blair, Bryce. The Battle of Fallen Timbers and the Treaty of Fort Greeneville: why did Anthony Wayne win both and could he have lost?. Toledo, OH: University of Toledo, 2005. http://utdr.utoledo.edu/theses-dissertations/1409.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [14 April 1794],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-16-02-0208-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 16, February 1794 – July 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 266–279.] [Last Accessed: 23 October 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [5 August] 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0017. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 24–58.] [Last Accessed: 25 Oct 2017]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 15 April 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0465. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 597–601.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2017]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Lancaster, Bruce. From Lexington to Liberty: The Story of the American Revolution. Lewis Gannett, ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1955.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 5 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0362. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 523–530.] [Last Accessed: 25 Oct 2017]
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Washington, George. “By the President of the United State of America. A Proclamation.” Yale Law School, The Avalon Project. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/gwproc09.asp. [Last Accessed: 23 Oct 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation, 7 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 531–537.] [Last Accessed: 25 Oct 2017]

1.21 – The Bigger They Are



Hugh Henry Brackenridge by Clayton Braun, courtesy of Wikipedia

Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1794

The Washington administration is beset by various problems in the west while the British threaten American shipping interests in the West Indies, leading the two nations on the path to war. Though growing ever more tired of his position, President Washington must devise a plan to thwart attempts at rebellion in the west, decide upon an envoy to send east to London to seek out a diplomatic resolution, and begin work to build the US Navy. No rest for a weary President in 1794! Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.045 – A Proclamation of Thanksgiving



Year(s) Discussed: 1619, 1621, 1789

To mark the upcoming US holiday of Thanksgiving, I wanted to release this special episode to provide a few thoughts on the holiday and its history and legacy as well as share with you President Washington’s proclamation issued on October 3rd, 1789 calling for the first day of national Thanksgiving under the constitutional government. The text can be found in the cited link below.

Music: Gustav Holst’s Movement II of “The Planets,” Venus, the Bringer of Peace


1.205 – Randolph



Edmund Randolph, courtesy of Wikipedia

Year(s) Discussed: 1753-1789

Though well known in his own day, Thomas Jefferson’s successor at the State Department is little known to modern audiences. Thus, I present this special episode in order to help you understand our second Secretary of State. His name has been brought up in the podcast previously as he was the first Attorney General, but there are a few key points that you’ll want to pay attention to about this Virginian’s story as they might just come to play in the not too distant future.

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche.

The source used for this episode was, to date, the only biography of Randolph that I’ve been able to find:

  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.

1.20 – Source Notes



General Anthony Wayne with the Legion of the United States by H Charles McBarron Jr, courtesy of the US Army Center of Military History and Wikipedia

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Adams, John. “To Benjamin Rush, 25 January 1806,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5119. [This is an Early Access document from The Adams Papers. It is not an authoritative final version.] [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America’s Swiss Founding Father. New York & London: New York University Press, 2010.
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg, [16 December 1793],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-15-02-0387-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 15, June 1793 – January 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, pp. 465–467.] [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 8 April 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-16-02-0195. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 16, February 1794 – July 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 250–253.] [Last Accessed: 24 Sep 2017]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017. http://presidencies.blubrry.com
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To Alexander Hamilton, 6 April 1790,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-06-02-0228. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 6, December 1789 – August 1790, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962, pp. 355–356.] [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2017]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • US Congress. “An Act for apportioning Representatives among the several States, according to the first enumeration.” 14 Apr 1792. https://www.census.gov/history/pdf/1790_Apportionment.pdf [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Gentlemen of the House of Representatives, 5 Apr 1792.” Annals of Congress, House of Represenatives, 2nd Congress, 1st Session. p. 539. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llac&fileName=003/llac003.db&recNum=267 [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation 3B—Cessation of Violence and Obstruction of Justice in Protest of Liquor Laws,” September 15, 1792. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65427. [Last Accessed: 21 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, [8 April 1794],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-16-02-0194. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 16, February 1794 – July 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 249–250.] [Last Accessed: 24 Sep 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0128. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 154.] [Last Accessed: 24 Sep 2017]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.