Be Washington(‘s Voice)!



In honor of Mount Vernon opening its Be Washington interactive experience today, I decided to hold a little contest and bring a fresh voice onto the podcast. I am seeking someone to read and record the intro quote for episode 1.27, set to launch in early March. The quote is from President Washington himself and appears in full below. If you are interested, please record yourself reading the following quote and send it (preferably in MP3 or WAV format, but I can try [though can’t guarantee] to work with other audio formats) via email to presidenciespodcast@gmail.com by Monday, February 26th. I will choose from the entries submitted and recognize the provider of the audio entry selected on the episode.

Without further ado, the legalities (seriously, what legitimate contest doesn’t have legalities?): By submitting an entry, you are certifying that the audio entry submitted is of you (I’m not sure how you would trick someone into reading this quote without their knowledge, but I never say never) and that you are agreeing to my using this audio for the purposes of this podcast including possible promotion. There is no compensation, monetary or otherwise, for providing this audio entry, just an acknowledgement on the episode in question as well as the eternal gratitude of a history geek who set off on a wild endeavor to cover presidential history from the very beginning a year and change ago.

I think that about covers it! Thus, on with the quote:

“This will be handed to you by Doctor Thornton of this City, who goes forward to lay before you a plan which he has prepared for the Capitol proposed to be built in the federal City.

Grandeur, Simplicity and Convenience appear to be so well combined in this plan of Doctor Thornton’s, that I have no doubt of its meeting with that approbation from you, which I have given it upon an attentive inspection, and which it has received from all those who have seen it and are considered as judges of such things.

How far the expense of such a building, as is exhibited by the plan, will comport with the funds of the City, you will be the best judges, after having made an estimate of the quantity of materials and labour to be employed in executing it. And to obviate objections that may be raised on this head, it should be considered, that the external of the building will be the only immediate expense to be incurred. The internal work—and many of the ornamental parts without, may be finished gradually, as the means will permit, and still the whole be completed within the time contemplated by law for the use of the building.”

This quote is from Washington’s letter to the Commissioners for the District of Columbia of March 3rd, 1793. Thanks so much to all who participate, and may your days be filled with history!

Image Credit: George Washington by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1795-1796, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.25 – Source Info



Special thanks to Thomas Daly of the American Biography podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

For more details on the French and Haitian Revolutions, check out the Revolutions podcast which covers both in great detail.

  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Allgor, Catherine. A Perfect Union: Dolley Madison and the Creation of the American Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 2006.
  • Blackburn, Robin. “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd Series, 63:4 (October 2006) 643-674.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.
  • Fewster, Joseph M. “’Tarnished Glory’: The Aftermath of British Victories in the West Indies in 1794.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 21:1 (1993) 75-104.
  • Floyd, Christopher J. “Trans-Oconee Republic.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. 25 September 2014. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/trans-oconee-republic [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Gillikin, Margaret Wilson. Sanit Dominguan Refugees in Charleston, South Carolina, 1791-1822: Assimilation and Accommodation in a Slave Society. Thesis. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. 2014.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 1 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0392. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, p. 413.] [Last Accessed: 10 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Angelica Church, 8 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0407. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 428–429.] [Last Accessed: 10 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander, “Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit, [16 January 1795],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0052-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 56–129.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 25 February 179[5],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0174. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 283–284.] [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Hobson, Charles F. “Chisholm v. Georgia.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 144.
  • Jenkins, H J K. “Franco-British Disagreement Regarding American Commerce in the Eastern Caribbean, 1793-1798.” Revue Française d’Histoire d’Outre-Mer. 272 (1986) 257-266.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002.
  • Kokomoor, Kevin. “Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic.” The Journal of Southern History. 81:4 (Nov 2015) 803-842.
  • Lancaster, Bruce. From Lexington to Liberty: The Story of the American Revolution. Lewis Gannett, ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1955.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. http://presidencies.blubrry.com. 2017.
  • Moitt, Bernard. “Slave Resistance in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 1791-1848.” The Journal of Caribbean History. 25:1 (1 Jan 1991) 136.
  • Moitt, Bernard. “Book Review: A Colony of Citizens.” Southern Quarterly. 44:3 (Spring 2007) 209-212.
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Orth, John V. “Eleventh Amendment.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p.250-251.
  • Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. “To George Washington, 24 February 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 273–275.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Roberts, Cokie. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.
  • “Santo Domingan Refugees, [10 January] 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0117. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 177–179.] [Last Accessed: 18 Dec 2017]
  • Sublette, Ned, and Constance Sublette. The American Slave Coast: A History of the Slave-Breeding Industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2016.
  • Washington, George. “Memorandum on General Officers, 9 March 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified March 30, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-10-02-0040. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 10, 1 March 1792 – 15 August 1792, ed. Robert F. Haggard and Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 74–79.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 22 January 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0084. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 103–105.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0128. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 154.] [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation 6—Day of Public Thanksgiving,” January 1, 1795. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65500. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Pendleton, 22 January 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 424–428.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • White, Ashli. Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  • Winik, Jay. The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008 [2007].
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “Vue de l’incendie de la ville du Cap Français, 21 juin 1793” by Jean-Baptiste Chapuy and J L Boquet, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.25 – The Happy Course



Year(s) Discussed: 1772-1795

As Alexander Hamilton readies himself to depart from the administration at the beginning of 1795, I use this defining point of the Washington presidency to explore various points of domestic policy and foreign issues including the establishment of the Trans-Oconee Republic, the state of the Democratic-Republican faction, the first steps of the Thermadorian government in France, the Kościuszko Uprising in Poland, the influx of refugees from Saint-Domingue and the progress of the Haitian Revolution, and British intrigues in the Caribbean. Many issues face Washington and his new Cabinet secretaries as they enter the final two years of his second term. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Portrait of Tadeusz Kościuszko” by Karl Gottlieb Schweikart, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.24 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

Map of Georgia showing precipitation and major rivers, courtesy of Wikipedia
Georgia River Basins, courtesy of Wikipedia
Map of the US following Kentucky’s statehood on June 1st, 1792, courtesy of user Golbez and Wikipedia
  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Davis, Edwin Adams. Louisiana The Pelican State. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961 [1959].
  • Davis, Harold E. The Fledgling Province: Social and Cultural Life in Colonial Georgia, 1733-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1976.
  • Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. “The 1795 Slave Conspiracy in Point Coupée: Impact of the French Revolution.” Proceedings of the Meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society. 15 (1992) 130-141.
  • Holmes, Jack D L. “The Abortive Slave Revolt at Pointe Coupée, Louisiana, 1795.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 11:4 (Autumn 1970) 341-362.
  • Knox, Henry. “Enclosure, 15 June 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-02-02-0357-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 2, 1 April 1789 – 15 June 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987, pp. 490–495.] [Last Accessed: 26 Nov 2017]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 7 July 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-03-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 3, 15 June 1789–5 September 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 134–141.] [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2017]
  • Knox, Henry. “Enclosure: Report, 17 January 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-09-02-0273-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 9, 23 September 1791 – 29 February 1792, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 449–452.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2017]
  • Kokomoor, Kevin. “Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic.” The Journal of Southern History. 81:4 (Nov 2015) 803-842.
  • Levy, Andrew. The First Emancipator: Slavery, Religion, and the Quiet Revolution of Robert Carter. New York: Random House, 2007 [2005].
  • Minnesota Legal History Project. “Ordinance of 1790, Also Known as the Southwest Ordinance.” Minnesota Legal History Project. 28 Jun 2011. http://www.minnesotalegalhistoryproject.org/assets/The%20Southwest%20Ordinance.pdf [Last Accessed: 28 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation—Warning Aginst Violation of Treaties Between the United States and the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chicksaw Indians,” August 26, 1790. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65566. [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2017]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: Unofficial flag of the state of Georgia pre-1879, courtesy of user RoyFocker 12 and Wikipedia


1.24 – The Mvskoke and Mathews



Year(s) Discussed: 1783-1793

The development of white settlements in what was then the Southwest United States brings about conflicts with various Native American nations including the Mvskoke (commonly referred to as the Creek). Thus, the Washington administration finds itself in the position of having to police its own citizens while at the same time negotiating peace with native peoples in the region. Meanwhile, the threat of slave uprisings moves closer to the United States and causes some slaveowners to reconsider their approach to enslaved people and the institution of slavery as a whole. Source information for this episode as well as supplementary maps can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “James Oglethorpe presenting the Yamacraw Indians to the Georgia Trustees” by William Verelst [c. 1734], courtesy of Wikipedia


36.005 – Pictures



Atlanta Fire Department Station No. 6

Dr. King’s Birthplace

The display on Dr. King’s life

The display on the life of Coretta Scott King

The suitcase and belongings that Dr. King carried with him to Memphis, TN in April 1968.

A painting of Gandhi

The King tomb at the MLK NHS

The historic Ebenezer Baptist Church

The interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church


36.005 – Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site



In remembrance of Dr. King, join me on a tour of the Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site in Atlanta, GA. The site highlights the life of Dr. King and his wife, Coretta Scott King, as well as shares information about other social activists related to the Kings and about the African-American community in Atlanta. Historic buildings at the site include Dr. King’s birthplace, Ebenezer Baptist Church, and Fire Station No. 6.

Pictures from the trip can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

A map of the historic site and the surrounding neighborhood can be found at the following link: https://www.nps.gov/malu/planyourvisit/maps.htm

The episode of the Harrison Podcast on my visit that same weekend to Fort Hill, the home of John C Calhoun in Clemson, SC, can be found at http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com.

Sources:


1.23 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

Special thanks to James Early for providing the intro quote, and be sure to check out Presidential Fight Club after you finish up with this episode!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Henry Lee, 20 October 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0317. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 331–336.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 11 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0348. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 366–367.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 6 October 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0013. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, p. 20.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Lengel, Edward G, et al, eds. The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794-31 March 1795. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2013
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Rosenfeld, Richard N. American Aurora: A Democratic-Republican Returns. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998 [1997].
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 30 September 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0507. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 744.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 9 October 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0027. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, p. 43.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 5 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0341. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 357–358.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Pendleton, 22 January 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 424–428.] [Last Accessed: 21 Nov 2017]

Featured Image: The Whiskey Rebellion [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.23 – Effigies and Efficacies



Year(s) Discussed: 1793-1794

James Monroe arrives in France as major changes are occurring in the governance of the nation – Robespierre is out, and the Thermadorians are in. Back in the US, Washington and Hamilton ride at the head of an army west to put an end to the Whiskey Rebellion once and for all, but they will be shocked by what they find as they draw nearer to Pittsburgh. Meanwhile, as we near the end of 1794, the longest serving member of Washington’s Cabinet considers his future. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: James Monroe by Louis Semé [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.22 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche.

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1962 [1923].
  • Booraem, Hendrik, V. A Child of the Revolution: William Henry Harrison and His World, 1773-1798. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2012.
  • Bradford, William. “To George Washington, 17 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0389. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 568–571.] [Last Accessed: 27 November 2017]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Eid, Leroy V. “American Indian Military Leadership: St. Clair’s 1791 Defeat.” The Journal of Military History. 57:1. Jan 1993. p. 71-88.
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Harrison, William Henry. A Discourse on the Aborigines of the Ohio Valley in which the Opinions of Its Conquest in the Seventeenth Century by the Iroquois or Six Nations, Supported by Cadwallader Colden of New York, Gov. Thomas Pownall of Massachusetts, Dr. Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Hon. DeWitt Clinton of New York, and Judge John Haywood of Tennessee, are Examined and Contested. Chicago: Fergus Printing Company, 1883 [1839].
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Hurt, R Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
  • Jay, John. “To Alexander Hamilton, 19 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 390–391.] [Last Accessed: 6 Nov 2017]
  • Johnston, Henry P. The Correspondence and Public Letters of John Jay, Volume IV: 1794-1826. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, [1890].
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756-1805. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 26 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0075. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 85–86.] [Last Accessed: 9 Nov 2017]
  • Moseley, E.L. “Long Time Forecasts of Ohio River Floods.” The Ohio Journal of Science. 39:4 [July 1939] 220-231.
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].

Featured Image: Portrait of George Washington in Masonic Regalia by William Joseph Williams [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia