2.02 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To John Adams, 7 May 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-01-02-0259. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 1, December 1761 – May 1776, ed. Lyman H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 401–403.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To James Lovell, 15 December 1777,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-02-02-0298. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 2, June 1776 – March 1778, ed. L. H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 370–372.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 25 June 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0017. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp. 99–100.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Josiah Quincy Jr., 18 September 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0046. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, p. 168.] [Last Accessed: 17 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 7 October 1775,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0096. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 188–191.] [Last Accessed: 24 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775 [1],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0108. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 212–214.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775 [2],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0109. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 214–215.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0110. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 215–216.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 15 May 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0079. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, February–August 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 186–187.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To John Lowell, 12 June 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0113. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, February–August 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 249–250.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 1776]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 3 July 1776.” Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. https://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/archive/doc?id=L17760703jasecond. [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Diary Entry, 26 April 1779.” Adams Papers Digital Edition. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/publications/adams-papers/view?id=ADMS-01-02-02-0009-0003-0010. [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Robert R. Livingston, 31 October 1782,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-14-02-0002. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 14, October 1782–May 1783, ed. Gregg L. Lint, C. James Taylor, Hobson Woodward, Margaret A. Hogan, Mary T. Claffey, Sara B. Sikes, and Judith S. Graham. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008, pp. 2–6.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 2 May 1785,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-17-02-0040. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 17, April–November 1785, ed. Gregg L. Lint, C. James Taylor, Sara Georgini, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Amanda A. Mathews, and Sara Martin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014, pp. 75–82.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Cotton Tufts, 27 August 1787,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-08-02-0064. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 8, March 1787 – December 1789, ed. C. James Taylor, Margaret A. Hogan, Jessie May Rodrique, Gregg L. Lint, Hobson Woodward, and Mary T. Claffey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 149.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John, and Abigail Adams. “To James Warren, 9 April 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0009. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp. 82–84.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2018]
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Gelles, Edith B. Abigail & John: Portrait of a Marriage. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
  • Gerry, Elbridge. “To John Adams, 29 September 1779,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-08-02-0124. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 8, March 1779 – February 1780, ed. Gregg L. Lint, Robert J. Taylor, Richard Alan Reyerson, Celeste Walker, and Joanna M. Revelas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989, pp. 179–184.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the Virginian: Jefferson and His Time Volume One. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1948.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Rights of Man: Jefferson and His Time Volume Two. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co, 1951.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume I 1735-1784. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “John Adams,” John Trumbull [c. 1792/1793], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.02 – Adams Pre-Presidency Part Two



Year(s) Discussed: 1773-1797

As the Revolution against Great Britain kicks off, John Adams assumes office in the Continental Congress where he makes a name for himself with individuals from the various colonies before being sent to represent the United States in Europe. While dealing with family matters and tensions with new colleagues and contemporaries, Adams navigates through challenging diplomatic waters before finally landing in the Vice Presidency then being elected to succeed George Washington as chief executive. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “American Commissioners of the Preliminary Peace Agreement with Great Britain,” Benjamin West [c. 1783-1784], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.01 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote for this episode!

Featured Image: “Abigail Adams,” Benjamin Blyth [c. 1766], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.01 – Adams Pre-Presidency



Year(s) Discussed: 1638-1772

A new series starts here! From his beginnings on a farm in Braintree, Massachusetts, John Adams set off on a path of learning that would take him through Harvard College and into the practice of law. During his quest for fame and adequate fortune, he would wed his “Dearest Friend,” Abigail Smith, and start a family while getting swept up in larger movements that would change the British North American colonies and the world forever. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “John Adams,” Benjamin Blyth [c. 1766], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.35 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Michael Troy of the American Revolution Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To George Washington, 22 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0270. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 351–352.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 19 May 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0258. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 21, April 1797 – July 1798, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 466–468.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 3 August 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-17-02-0023. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 17, 31 March 1797–3 March 1801 and supplement 22 January 1778–9 August 1795, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, pp. 33–37.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 29 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0374. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 469–472.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 4 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0126. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 178.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Lafayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de. “To George Washington, 6 October 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0338. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 384–386.] [Last Accessed: 9 May 2018]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Langhorne, John. [Peter Carr] “To George Washington, 25 September 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0327. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 373–375.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Nicholas, John. “To George Washington, 9 December 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0453. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 509–511.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Spalding, Paul S. Lafayette: Prisoner of State. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.
  • Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. “To George Washington, 22 June 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0111. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 143–144.] [Last Accessed: 15 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Joseph Habersham, 8 August 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00826. [Last Accessed: 9 May 2018]
  • Washington, George.”To Thomas Jefferson, 28 August 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0136. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, p. 178.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “T o John Langhorne [Peter Carr], 15 October 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0364. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, p. 409.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Nicholas, 8 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0112. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 127–129.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 16 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0328. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 423–426.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Bushrod Washington, 12 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0411. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 514–515.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Richard Raynal Keene, 28 December 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0201. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 291.] [Last Accessed: 16 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 21 July 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 201–204.] [Last Accessed: 15 May 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Featured Image: “A view on Mount Vernon with the Washington family on the terrace”, Benjamin Henry Latrobe [16 Jul 1796], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.35 – Washington Post-Presidency



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1799

Washington envisioned a relaxing retirement at Mount Vernon with his family after leaving the presidency in March 1797, but it was not to be. Between personal issues and a return to public service, the last couple of years of Washington’s life prior to his sudden demise would be filled with business and breaches of trust and friendship. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Life of George Washington: The Christian” lithograph by Claude Regnier, original painting by Junius Brutus Stearns [c. 1853], courtesy of Library of Congress


1.34 – Source Notes



Special thanks to James Early, Steve Guerra, and Alex Slawson for voicing George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson respectively in the intro for this episode! After listening to this episode, check out the History of the Papacy and the Beyond the Big Screen podcasts by going to A to Z History or by searching for them on iTunes or anywhere else podcasts can be found. Also, go to Facebook and join the American History Fanatics group!

Map of the electoral vote for the 1796 presidential election, courtesy of Wikipedia

  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 20 January 1796,” Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses,C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2018. http://www.masshist.org/apde2/ [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 10 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0086. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 171–172.] [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 15 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0090. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 177–179.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 25 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0119. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 228–230.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 27 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0237. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 462–463.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2018]
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • “Cockade.” Merriam-Webster. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cockade [Last Accessed: 30 Apr 2018]
  • Duane, William. “A letter to George Washington, president of the United States: containing strictures on his address of the seventeenth of September, 1796, notifying his relinquishment of the presidential office. / By Jasper Dwight, of Vermont.” Philadelphia, PA: Benjamin Franklin Bache, 1796. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/evans/N23664.0001.001/1:2?rgn=div1;view=fulltext [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 5 November 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-01062. [Last Accessed: 18 Apr 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William Branch Giles, 31 December 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0440. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 565–567.] [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Edward Rutledge, 27 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0189. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 231–233.] [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 8 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0313. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, p. 448.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 30 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0223. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 280–281.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 15 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00183. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 5 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0173. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 214–215.] [Last Accessed: 30 Apr 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. “Electoral College Box Scores 1789-1996.” https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/scores.html#1796 [Last Accessed: 3 May 2018]
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 7 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00265. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 10 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00274. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. “To George Washington, 23 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00212. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Tobias Lear, 30 March 1796.” The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799: Volume 35: March 30, 1796-July 31, 1797. John C Fitzpatrick, ed. 1939. https://books.google.com/books?id=ooGyAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA6&ots=ObAdia1hSZ&dq=is%20large%20enough%20to%20receive%20a%20bed%20for%20you%20and%20it%20is%20needless%20to%20add%20we%20shall%20be%20glad%20of%20your%20company&pg=PA6#v=onepage&q&f=false [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “Farewell Address,” September 19, 1796. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65539. [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 3 November 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0243. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 366–367.] [Last Accessed: 18 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “Special Message,” January 19, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65533. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 2 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00379. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 3 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00393. Last Accessed: 6 May 2018

Featured Image: “Patrick Henry” by George Bagby Matthews [c. 1891], courtesy of Wikipedia


"Evacuation day" and Washington's triumphal entry in New York City, Nov. 25th, 1783

1.34 – The Final(ish) Curtain Call



Year(s) Discussed: 1794-1797

After President Washington releases his Farewell Address, informing the nation that he would not seek another term, the 1796 election is carried out though, both domestically and abroad, there is much confusion about how exactly the United States would decide upon its next president. Meanwhile, the French plot to interfere with the election, the public attacks on Washington continue, and a military leader meets his untimely end. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “”Evacuation day” and Washington’s triumphal entry in New York City, Nov. 25th, 1783,” Edmund Restein and Ludwig Restein, c. 1879, courtesy of the Library of Congress


1.33 – Source Notes



Special thanks to David Severa of the Early and Often podcast for providing this episode’s intro quote

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 5 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0058. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 122–123.] [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 7 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0061. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 130–131.] [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 20 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0066. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 141–142.] [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Durham, Walter T. Before Tennessee: The Southwest Territory 1790-1796. Piney Flats, TN: Rocky Mount Historical Association, 1990.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “The Defence No. I, [22 July 1795],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0305-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 479–489.] [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Timothy Pickering, [10 May 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0103. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 167–168.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [10 May 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0105-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 173–174.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, [15 June 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0138. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 223–224.] [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 5 July 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0157. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 246–248.] [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, 16 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0285. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 444–447.] [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Stanislaus Murray, ed. The Writings of James Monroe, Including a Collection of his Public and Private Papers and Correspondence Now for the First Time Printed, Volume II. 1794-1796. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, 1899.
  • Jay, John. “To George Washington from John Jay, 18 April 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00452. [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • King, Rufus. “To Alexander Hamilton, 2 May [1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0092-0001. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 151–152.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. http://presidencies.blubrry.com. 2018.
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 26 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0155. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 232–234.] [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Marshall, John. “To George Washington, 11 July 1796.” The Papers of John Marshall Volume III: Correspondence and Papers, January 1796-December 1798. William C Stinchcombe and Charles T Cullen, eds. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. pp. 32-33
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington from Timothy Pickering, 12 May 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00513. [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1998 [1996].
  • Spalding, Paul S. Lafayette: Prisoner of State. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • “Treaty of Friendship, Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and The United States; October 27, 1795.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. [Original Source: Teaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America, Volume 2, Documents 1-40: 1776-1818. Hunter Miller, ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1931.] http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/sp1795.asp [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 15 May 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0106. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 174–178.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Marshall, 8 July 1796,” The Papers of John Marshall Volume III: Correspondence and Papers, January 1796-December 1798. William C Stinchcombe and Charles T Cullen, eds. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. pp. 33-34.
  • Washington, George. “Transcription: Washington’s First Draft for an Address.” New York State Library, last modified December 5, 2016. [Original Source: Washington’s Farewell Address, ed. Victor Hugo Paltsits. New York: New York Public Library, 1935.] http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/mssc/washington/farewell.htm. [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Thomas Pinckney,” W C Armstrong, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.33 – Race to the Finish Line



Year(s) Discussed: 1790-1796

Relations between the US and France deteriorate after the Jay Treaty goes into effect while Washington gets involved in the campaign to secure Lafayette’s release from his imprisonment in the Habsburg Monarchy, the administration takes care of business as the end of Washington’s second term draws closer, and the parties position themselves to launch into the 1796 presidential campaign as soon as Washington finally makes official his plans to retire (aka the worst kept secret in the 18th century). Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Portrait of Marie Adrienne Francoise de Noailles, Marquise de La Fayette (1759-1807)”, courtesy of Wikipedia