2.23 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Steve Guerra of the History of the Papacy and Beyond the Big Screen podcasts for providing the intro quote for this episode! As mentioned in the episode, Steve will be joining other podcasters at the Intelligent Speech Conference in New York City on June 29th, 2019. It’s sure to be a great conference, so make your plans to check it out!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 10 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0787. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 21 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0794. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To John Marshall, 30 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4553. [Last Accessed: 11 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Pinckney, 27 October 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4667. [Last Accessed: 13 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 2 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0784. [Last Accessed: 11 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 15 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0792. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “Fourth Annual Address to Congress, 22 November 1800.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/200693. [Last Accessed: 19 May 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Buchanan, James. “Alfred Moore.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 56-60.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Moore, Alfred.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 560.
  • Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800-1878. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Pierce Butler, 11 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0055. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, p. 91.] [Last Accessed: 23 May 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linden, Frank van der. The Turning Point: Jefferson’s Battle for the Presidency. Washington, DC: Robert B Luce Inc, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Pinckney, Thomas. “To John Adams, 16 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4592. [Last Accessed: 13 May 2019]
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Portrait of Aaron Burr” attributed to Gilbert Stuart [c. 1793 or 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.23 – The Double-Edged Sword



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1800

As the new federal capital comes alive with government officials and newspaper publishers moving in to be on hand for the congressional session opening in November 1800, President Adams waits with the rest of the nation to learn the results of electors being chosen across the United States. His path to reelection however grows ever darker due to a dispute with his running mate’s brother and a pamphlet released by Alexander Hamilton. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney” by James Earl [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia


V003 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Jared Cohen for taking the time to speak with me for this interview and to Stephen Bedford of Simon and Schuster and Dan Keyserling, Jared’s scheduler, for all of your efforts in making arrangements for this interview to happen! Special thanks also to Les and Susan for your assistance in brainstorming questions!


V003 – Interview with Jared Cohen, Accidental Presidents



Year(s) Discussed: 1835-2009

In this episode, I talk with Jared Cohen, author of Accidental Presidents: Eight Men Who Changed America, about the presidents who came to the office due to the untimely demise of their predecessor and how their becoming president altered the course of US history. In this wide-ranging discussion, we assess some of the successes and failures of these presidents as well as the history of how constitutional questions related to succession were answered and what questions still remain. Images used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Jared Cohen” by Esther Nisanova


2.22 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Niall Cooper of the Assassinations Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To John Marshall, 31 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4473. [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Ellsworth, Oliver. “To John Adams, 16 October 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4663. [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 1 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0004. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 4–5.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Samuel Dexter, 2 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0005. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, p. 6.] [Last Accessed: 23 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To John Adams, 1 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0036. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 51–52.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 3 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0039. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 54–56.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 9 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 131–132.] [Last Accessed: 11 Apr 2019]
  • The national intelligencer and Washington advertiser. (Washington City [D.C.]), 04 May 1801. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045242/1801-05-04/ed-1/seq-4/. [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].
  • “Treaty of Alliance Between The United States and France; February 6, 1778.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fr1788-2.asp. [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • “Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between The United States and France; February 6, 1778.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fr1788-1.asp [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 7 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0018. Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 15–17.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]

Featured Image: “The Signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine, 30th September 1800” by Victor Adam, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.22 – Enter the Federal City



Year(s) Discussed: 1799-1801

As President Adams and the federal government transition to the new federal capital, the next presidential election looms, and both Federalist and Democratic-Republican leaders work on behalf of their favored candidates to meet challenges to their prospects. While Federalists cope with an internal debate over exactly which candidate to support, Democratic-Republicans in Virginia work to cover up the involvement of French agents in Gabriel’s Rebellion. All the while, the US commission to France scrambles to conclude their work with a treaty in time for Adams and the Federalists to claim credit for winning the peace. Source notes for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “A view of the Capitol of Washington before it was burnt down by the British” by William Russell Birch [c. 1800], courtesy of Wikipedia


V002 – Sources Used



  • “Portrait of George Washington” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_Washington_1795.jpg
  • “Washington’s First Inauguration” [c. 1899], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington%27s_Inauguration.jpg
  • “Thomas Jefferson” by John Trumbull [c. 1788], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Jefferson_by_John_Trumbull_1788.jpg
  • “Alexander Hamilton” by John Trumbull [c. 1806], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Trumbull_-_Alexander_Hamilton_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
  • “Henry Knox” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1806], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_Knox_by_Gilbert_Stuart_1806.jpeg
  • “Edmund Randolph”, courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edmund_Randolph,_head-and-shoulders_portrait.jpg
  • “The First Presidential Mansion” by George Hayward [c. 1853], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_First_Presidential_Mansion.jpg
  • “The First Bank of the United States” by Jerry Landry [July 2017] http://presidencies.blubrry.com/2017/07/20/early-republic-sites-of-interest-in-philly/
  • “Alexander Macomb House” by George Hayward [c. 1831], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:New_York_Second_Presidential_Mansion.jpg
  • “Residence of Washington in High Street, Philada.” By William L Breton [c. 1828-1830], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PhiladelphiaPresidentsHouse.jpg
  • “James Madison” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1821], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JamesMadison.jpg
  • “Execution of Louis XVI” by Isidore Stanislas Helman and Antoine-Jean Duclos after Charles Monnet [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Execution_of_Louis_XVI.jpg
  • “Exécution de Robespierre et de ses complices conspirateurs contre la liberté et l’égalité : vive la Convention nationale qui par son énergie et surveillance a délivré la République de ses tyrans” [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Execution_robespierre,_saint_just….jpg
  • “Portrait of Thomas Jefferson” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1791], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:T_Jefferson_by_Charles_Willson_Peale_1791_2.jpg
  • “Alexander Hamilton” [c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alexander_Hamilton_politician.jpg
  • “Washington’s Inauguration at Philadelphia” by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington%27s_inauguration_at_Philadelphia_cph.3g12011.jpg
  • “Famous Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania” [c. 1880], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whiskey_Insurrection.JPG
  • “The Whiskey Rebellion” [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WhiskeyRebellion.jpg
  • “Jay Treaty” [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jay%27s-treaty.jpg
  • “George Washington, 1795-1796” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1795-1796], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_Washington_by_Gilbert_Stuart,_1795-96.png
  • “John Adams” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1800-1815], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Adams,_Gilbert_Stuart,_c1800_1815.jpg
  • “George Washington” by Edward Savage [c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_Savage_George_Washington_1790.jpg
  • “George Washington” by Constantino Brumidi after Rembrandt Peale [c. 1855-1865], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantino_Brumidi_George_Washington.jpg

V002 – The Washington Presidency in Five (or So) Minutes



Year(s) Discussed: 1789-1797

In response to a question from Les, I attempt to do a summation of the Washington presidency from memory in five minutes. Though the full series is recommended for more detail, I think the result is rather entertaining.

Images used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

002 – The Washington Presidency in Five (or So) Minutes from Presidencies Podcast on Vimeo.

Featured Image: “George Washington (The Constable-Hamilton Portrait)” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1797], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.21 – Source Notes



  • Beeman, Richard R. The Old Dominion & The New Nation, 1788-1801. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
  • “Decennial Census Official Publications: 1790.” United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade/decennial-publications.1790.html [Last Accessed: 5 May 2019]
  • “Decennial Census Official Publications: 1800.” United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade/decennial-publications.1800.html [Last Accessed: 5 May 2019]
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Fischer, David Hackett, and James C Kelly. Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. Charlottesville, VA and London: University of Virginia Press, 2000 [2000].
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Monroe, 14 July 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-26-02-0445. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 26, 11 May–31 August 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. 501–503.] [Last Accessed: 13 Apr 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 9 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 131–132.] [Last Accessed: 11 Apr 2019]
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Rawson, David, and the Dictionary of Virginia Biography. “Augustine Davis (ca. 1752 or 1753-1825).” Encyclopedia Virginia. https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Augustine_c_1752_or_1753-1825. [Last Accessed: 18 Apr 2019]
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Sublette, Ned, and Constance Sublette. The American Slave Coast: A History of the Slave-Breeding Industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2016.
  • Taylor, Alan. The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia 1772-1832. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2014 [2013].

Featured Image: “André Rigaud”, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.21 – I am Gabriel, That Stands in the Presence of God



Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1801

The revolution in Saint-Domingue inspires enslaved people in the United States to seek their freedom in the 1790s at a time that the slaveocracy was becoming more ingrained in the American economy, society, and legal codes. With a focus on Virginia, this episode will explore the shifts in the American slave system in the late 1790s and the planned insurrection that has come to be known as Gabriel’s Rebellion. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Struggle for freedom in a Maryland barn.” by William Still [c. 1872], courtesy of Wikipedia