2.15 – Hot Time, Summer in the Country



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1799

John Adams makes a fateful decision that threatens his administration and its ability to react quickly to developing events. Meanwhile, General James Wilkinson’s past collusion with the Spanish is discovered by a government agent in the Mississippi Territory. Closer to home, Fries’s Rebellion comes to a close as harassment of Democratic-Republican newspaper editors ramps up. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Watercolor of Peacefield Before the 1800 Addition” by E Malcom [c. 1798], courtesy of Wikipedia


A Humble Appeal



A brief, humble appeal from your friendly neighborhood podcaster for you to take a couple of seconds out of your day, each day from now through Sunday, February 17th, 2019 to support my personal mission of podcasting and history podcasting in general by voting for 45 and Counting in WFAE’s Queen City PodQuest by going to the following link and selecting “Vote Now” just below the logo: https://queencitypodquest.strutta.me/gallery?entry_id=1346530


2.14 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Noah Tetzner of the Stories of the Second World War and The History of Vikings podcasts for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Adams, John. “February 18, 1799, Special Message.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202463. [Last Accessed: 10 Jan 2019]
  • Brown, Gordon S. Toussaint’s Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Dubois, Laurent. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution & Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • Duncan, Mike. Revolutions. https://www.revolutionspodcast.com/.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Francisco de Miranda, 22 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0062. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 155–156.] [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, 22 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0061. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 154–155.] [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Harrison Gray Otis, 26 January 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0257. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 440–442.] [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 16 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 383–384.] [Last Accessed: 10 Jan 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Theodore Sedgwick, 21 February 179[9],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0295. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 493–494.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2019]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 19 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-31-02-0029. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 31, 1 February 1799 – 31 May 1800, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 44–46.] [Last Accessed: 10 Jan 2019] [Last Accessed: 10 Jan 2019]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • “Letters of Toussaint Louverture and of Edward Stevens, 1798-1800.” The American Historical Review. 16:1 [Oct 1910] 64-101.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To Alexander Hamilton, 25 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0299. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 500–503.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 1799]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Sedgwick, Theodore. “To Alexander Hamilton, 19 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0291. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 487–490.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2019]
  • Sedgwick, Theodore. “To Alexander Hamilton, 22 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0296. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 494–495.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2019]
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].
  • Washington, George. “To James McHenry, 13 December 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0178. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 250–265.] [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2019]

Featured Image: “André Rigaud”, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.14 – The Plausible Probability of Preserving the Peace



Year(s) Discussed: 1798-1799

Adams throws the American political landscape into a frenzy with a special message to Congress announcing that he was appointing a new Minister to France to negotiate peace. While exploring what this all means for Adams, his administration, and the nation, we also take a step back in this episode to look at the influence of American policy in Saint-Domingue and South America on the realities and future of Franco-American relations in 1799. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Atlantic or Western Ocean” by John Thomson [c. 1814], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.13 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Susan Stevenson of the American Epistles podcast for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To John Adams, 4 January 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0288. [Last Accessed: 23 Dec 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 15 January 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3297. [Last Accessed: 2 Jan 2019]
  • Barlow, Joel. “To George Washington, 2 October 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0036. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 68–72.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jan 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 25 January 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-17-02-0141. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 17, 31 March 1797–3 March 1801 and supplement 22 January 1778–9 August 1795, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, pp. 220–222.] [Last Accessed: 3 Jan 2019]
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Newman, Paul Douglas. Fries’s Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 2 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0256. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 355–356.] [Last Accessed: 3 Jan 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Washington, George. “To John Adams, 1 February 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0251. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 350–351.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jan 2019]

Featured Image: “Thomas Truxtun” by Bass Otis [c. 1817], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.13 – Destiny Written in the Stars



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1799

Despite the wealth of evidence coming in of the sincerity of the French Directory in seeking peace, President Adams found himself at odds with his Secretary of State Timothy Pickering at the beginning of 1799 with Pickering continuing the push for war. Meanwhile, the US Navy proved its worth in protecting American shipping in the Caribbean just as relations with the British began a downward spiral once more. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “USS Constellation vs L’Insurgente,” Rear Admiral John William Schmidt [c. 1981], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.12 – Source Notes



  • Adams, John. “To John Quincy Adams, 16 October 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0199. [Last Accessed: 19 Dec 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 20 October 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3136. [Last Accessed: 16 Dec 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James McHenry, 22 October 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3142. [Last Accessed: 19 Dec 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 26 October 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3158. [Last Accessed: 16 Dec 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Second Annual Address to Congress.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/200550. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2018]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Gelles, Edith B. Abigail & John: Portrait of a Marriage. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
  • Gerry, Elbridge. “To John Adams, 20 October 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3138. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2018]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York and London: Free Press, 2009.
  • Lee, Charles. “To John Adams, 1 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3190. [Last Accessed: 20 Dec 2018]
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • McHenry, James. ““To John Adams, 25 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3212. [Last Accessed: 20 Dec 2018]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 18 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2849. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2018]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 5 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3199. [Last Accessed: 16 Dec 2018]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 27 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3216. [Last Accessed: 20 Dec 2018]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Stoddert, Benjamin. “To John Adams, 25 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3213. [Last Accessed: 20 Dec 2018]
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To John Adams, 26 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3214. [Last Accessed: 20 Dec 2018]
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Portrait of Napoleon” by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux [c. 1835], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.12 – Ready, Aim, Fire!



Year(s) Covered: 1798

As the nation gears up for the possibility of war with France, President Adams is increasingly focused on the possibility of peace as he prepares his annual message to Congress. Meanwhile, a rising star in the French military suffers a major setback that imperils the French Republic’s position on the global landscape. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “The Destruction of “L’Orient” at the Battle of the Nile, 1 August 1798″ by George Arnald [c. 1825-1827], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.11 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Thomas Daly of the American Biography podcast for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Adams, John. “Message to the Senate and House of June 21, 1798 Regarding Envoys to France.” Avalon Project, Yale University. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/ja98-04.asp. [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 13 September 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2966. [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 26 September 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3033. [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Conrad, Stephen A. “Wilson, James.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 932-933.
  • Cushman, Clare. “Bushrod Washington.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Cushman, Clare, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995. p. 51-55.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Washington, Bushrod.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 917-918.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To James McHenry, 30 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0023. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 41–43.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 29 July [–August 1] 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0021. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 36–40.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Taylor, 26 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-30-02-0398. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 30, 1 January 1798 – 31 January 1799, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 588–590.] [Last Accessed: 25 Nov 2018]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Kornfeld, Eve. “Crisis in the Capital: The Cultural Significance of Philadelphia’s Great Yellow Fever Epidemic.” Pennsylvania History. 51:3 [July 1984] 189-205.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • McHenry, James. “To George Washington, 25 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0437. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 559–562.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Newman, Paul Douglas. Fries’s Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Pernick, Martin S. “Politics, Parties, and Pestilence: Epidemic Yellow Fever in Philadelphia and the Rise of the First Party System.” The William and Mary Quarterly. 29:4 [Oct 1972] 559-586.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To John Adams, 20 September 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3004. [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Smith, Jeffery A. Franklin & Bache: Envisioning the Enlightened Republic. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
  • US Department of State. “State House, Trenton August-November 1797, 1798, 1799.” Buildings of the Department of State. https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/buildings/section18. [Last Accessed: 27 Nov 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 9 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0042. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 62–64.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To James McHenry, 10 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0406. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 508–511.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To James McHenry, 13 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0415. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 520–521.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To James McHenry, 13 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0416. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 521–522.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]
  • Whichard, Willis P. Justice James Iredell. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 9 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0043. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 64–66.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2018]

Featured Image: “Elbridge Gerry” by James Bogle after John Vanderlyn [c. 1861], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.11 – The Opposition Strikes Back



Year(s) Discussed: 1798

With yellow fever raging in Philadelphia, the federal government has to move once more, adding to the headaches of Secretary of War James McHenry who had his position in the Cabinet already being undermined by General Alexander Hamilton. In Quincy, John Adams meets with Elbridge Gerry to learn more about the latest offer for diplomatic talks with the French while in Virginia, Vice President Jefferson and former Rep. James Madison plot how to oppose the Alien and Sedition Acts. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Images: “Seal of Virginia” [c. 1851] and “An impression from the first Kentucky State Seal” [c. 1800], courtesy of Wikipedia