Category Archives: Uncategorized

1.27 – The Light of Burning Effigies



Year(s) Discussed: 1789-1799

While the construction of the nation’s new capital proceeds, the public battle against the Jay Treaty begins in earnest upon its publication by Benjamin Franklin Bache. Demonstrations and meetings go on up and down the Eastern seaboard, and even Alexander Hamilton has difficulty determining how to respond. Meanwhile, Washington has to fill John Jay’s position as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and deal with the last remaining member of his first Cabinet now looking to find a way out of his post. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: Burning of Stamp Act [c.1903], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.26 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Sean Munger of the Second Decade podcast for providing the intro quote!

  • Allen, W B; and Seth Ames, eds. Works of Fisher Ames: Volume II. Indianapolis, IN: LibertyClassics, 1983 [1854].
  • Annals of Congress. 4th Congress, Special Session. 853-868. https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwac.html [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2018]
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1962 [1923].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Ferling, John. The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon. New York, Berlin, and London: Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, 11 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0253. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 370–373.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2018]
  • Jay, John. “To Alexander Hamilton, 19 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 390–391.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Washington, 14 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0070. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 74–75.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Edmund Randolph, 7 September 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0109. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, p. 148.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Thomas Mann Randolph, 11 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0340. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 434–435.] [Last Accessed: 1 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Mann Page, 30 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0347. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 440–441.] [Last Accessed: 1 Jan 2018]
  • Johnston, Henry P. The Correspondence and Public Letters of John Jay, Volume IV: 1794-1826. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, [1890].
  • Lee, Henry. “To George Washington, 17 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0391. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 572–573.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756-1805. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 4 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0306. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 405–409.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 15 February 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0383. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 473–475.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jan 2018]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 11 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0399. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 487–488.] [Last Accessed: 9 Jan 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, KS; Manhattan, KS; and Wichita, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1974 [1974].
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 2 September 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0268. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 354–357.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To Thomas Jefferson, 28 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0103. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 117–119.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 25 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0198. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 258–260.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2018]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Lee, 26 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0418. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 600–605.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Jay, 18 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0200. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 286–289.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To William Pearce, 8 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0424. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 632–634.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Charles Carter of Ludlow, 10 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0430. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 643–644.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To James Ross, 14 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0440. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 653–654.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Thomas Jefferson, 15 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0441. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 654–657.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]

Featured Image: “Thomas Pinckney” by W C Armstrong, courtesy of Wikipedia


Be Washington(‘s Voice)!



In honor of Mount Vernon opening its Be Washington interactive experience today, I decided to hold a little contest and bring a fresh voice onto the podcast. I am seeking someone to read and record the intro quote for episode 1.27, set to launch in early March. The quote is from President Washington himself and appears in full below. If you are interested, please record yourself reading the following quote and send it (preferably in MP3 or WAV format, but I can try [though can’t guarantee] to work with other audio formats) via email to presidenciespodcast@gmail.com by Monday, February 26th. I will choose from the entries submitted and recognize the provider of the audio entry selected on the episode.

Without further ado, the legalities (seriously, what legitimate contest doesn’t have legalities?): By submitting an entry, you are certifying that the audio entry submitted is of you (I’m not sure how you would trick someone into reading this quote without their knowledge, but I never say never) and that you are agreeing to my using this audio for the purposes of this podcast including possible promotion. There is no compensation, monetary or otherwise, for providing this audio entry, just an acknowledgement on the episode in question as well as the eternal gratitude of a history geek who set off on a wild endeavor to cover presidential history from the very beginning a year and change ago.

I think that about covers it! Thus, on with the quote:

“This will be handed to you by Doctor Thornton of this City, who goes forward to lay before you a plan which he has prepared for the Capitol proposed to be built in the federal City.

Grandeur, Simplicity and Convenience appear to be so well combined in this plan of Doctor Thornton’s, that I have no doubt of its meeting with that approbation from you, which I have given it upon an attentive inspection, and which it has received from all those who have seen it and are considered as judges of such things.

How far the expense of such a building, as is exhibited by the plan, will comport with the funds of the City, you will be the best judges, after having made an estimate of the quantity of materials and labour to be employed in executing it. And to obviate objections that may be raised on this head, it should be considered, that the external of the building will be the only immediate expense to be incurred. The internal work—and many of the ornamental parts without, may be finished gradually, as the means will permit, and still the whole be completed within the time contemplated by law for the use of the building.”

This quote is from Washington’s letter to the Commissioners for the District of Columbia of March 3rd, 1793. Thanks so much to all who participate, and may your days be filled with history!

Image Credit: George Washington by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1795-1796, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.25 – Source Info



Special thanks to Thomas Daly of the American Biography podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

For more details on the French and Haitian Revolutions, check out the Revolutions podcast which covers both in great detail.

  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Allgor, Catherine. A Perfect Union: Dolley Madison and the Creation of the American Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 2006.
  • Blackburn, Robin. “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd Series, 63:4 (October 2006) 643-674.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.
  • Fewster, Joseph M. “’Tarnished Glory’: The Aftermath of British Victories in the West Indies in 1794.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 21:1 (1993) 75-104.
  • Floyd, Christopher J. “Trans-Oconee Republic.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. 25 September 2014. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/trans-oconee-republic [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Gillikin, Margaret Wilson. Sanit Dominguan Refugees in Charleston, South Carolina, 1791-1822: Assimilation and Accommodation in a Slave Society. Thesis. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. 2014.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 1 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0392. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, p. 413.] [Last Accessed: 10 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Angelica Church, 8 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0407. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 428–429.] [Last Accessed: 10 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander, “Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit, [16 January 1795],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0052-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 56–129.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 25 February 179[5],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0174. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 283–284.] [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Hobson, Charles F. “Chisholm v. Georgia.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 144.
  • Jenkins, H J K. “Franco-British Disagreement Regarding American Commerce in the Eastern Caribbean, 1793-1798.” Revue Française d’Histoire d’Outre-Mer. 272 (1986) 257-266.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002.
  • Kokomoor, Kevin. “Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic.” The Journal of Southern History. 81:4 (Nov 2015) 803-842.
  • Lancaster, Bruce. From Lexington to Liberty: The Story of the American Revolution. Lewis Gannett, ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1955.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. http://presidencies.blubrry.com. 2017.
  • Moitt, Bernard. “Slave Resistance in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 1791-1848.” The Journal of Caribbean History. 25:1 (1 Jan 1991) 136.
  • Moitt, Bernard. “Book Review: A Colony of Citizens.” Southern Quarterly. 44:3 (Spring 2007) 209-212.
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Orth, John V. “Eleventh Amendment.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p.250-251.
  • Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. “To George Washington, 24 February 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 273–275.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Roberts, Cokie. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.
  • “Santo Domingan Refugees, [10 January] 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0117. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 177–179.] [Last Accessed: 18 Dec 2017]
  • Sublette, Ned, and Constance Sublette. The American Slave Coast: A History of the Slave-Breeding Industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2016.
  • Washington, George. “Memorandum on General Officers, 9 March 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified March 30, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-10-02-0040. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 10, 1 March 1792 – 15 August 1792, ed. Robert F. Haggard and Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 74–79.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 22 January 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0084. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 103–105.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0128. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 154.] [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation 6—Day of Public Thanksgiving,” January 1, 1795. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65500. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Pendleton, 22 January 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 424–428.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • White, Ashli. Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  • Winik, Jay. The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008 [2007].
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “Vue de l’incendie de la ville du Cap Français, 21 juin 1793” by Jean-Baptiste Chapuy and J L Boquet, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.24 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

Map of Georgia showing precipitation and major rivers, courtesy of Wikipedia
Georgia River Basins, courtesy of Wikipedia
Map of the US following Kentucky’s statehood on June 1st, 1792, courtesy of user Golbez and Wikipedia
  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Davis, Edwin Adams. Louisiana The Pelican State. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961 [1959].
  • Davis, Harold E. The Fledgling Province: Social and Cultural Life in Colonial Georgia, 1733-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1976.
  • Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. “The 1795 Slave Conspiracy in Point Coupée: Impact of the French Revolution.” Proceedings of the Meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society. 15 (1992) 130-141.
  • Holmes, Jack D L. “The Abortive Slave Revolt at Pointe Coupée, Louisiana, 1795.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 11:4 (Autumn 1970) 341-362.
  • Knox, Henry. “Enclosure, 15 June 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-02-02-0357-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 2, 1 April 1789 – 15 June 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987, pp. 490–495.] [Last Accessed: 26 Nov 2017]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 7 July 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-03-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 3, 15 June 1789–5 September 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 134–141.] [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2017]
  • Knox, Henry. “Enclosure: Report, 17 January 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-09-02-0273-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 9, 23 September 1791 – 29 February 1792, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 449–452.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2017]
  • Kokomoor, Kevin. “Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic.” The Journal of Southern History. 81:4 (Nov 2015) 803-842.
  • Levy, Andrew. The First Emancipator: Slavery, Religion, and the Quiet Revolution of Robert Carter. New York: Random House, 2007 [2005].
  • Minnesota Legal History Project. “Ordinance of 1790, Also Known as the Southwest Ordinance.” Minnesota Legal History Project. 28 Jun 2011. http://www.minnesotalegalhistoryproject.org/assets/The%20Southwest%20Ordinance.pdf [Last Accessed: 28 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation—Warning Aginst Violation of Treaties Between the United States and the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chicksaw Indians,” August 26, 1790. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65566. [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2017]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: Unofficial flag of the state of Georgia pre-1879, courtesy of user RoyFocker 12 and Wikipedia


36.005 – Pictures



Atlanta Fire Department Station No. 6

Dr. King’s Birthplace

The display on Dr. King’s life

The display on the life of Coretta Scott King

The suitcase and belongings that Dr. King carried with him to Memphis, TN in April 1968.

A painting of Gandhi

The King tomb at the MLK NHS

The historic Ebenezer Baptist Church

The interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church


1.23 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

Special thanks to James Early for providing the intro quote, and be sure to check out Presidential Fight Club after you finish up with this episode!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Henry Lee, 20 October 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0317. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 331–336.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 11 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0348. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 366–367.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 6 October 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0013. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, p. 20.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Lengel, Edward G, et al, eds. The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794-31 March 1795. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press, 2013
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Rosenfeld, Richard N. American Aurora: A Democratic-Republican Returns. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998 [1997].
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 30 September 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0507. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 744.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 9 October 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0027. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, p. 43.] [Last Accessed: 20 Nov 2017]
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  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Pendleton, 22 January 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 424–428.] [Last Accessed: 21 Nov 2017]

Featured Image: The Whiskey Rebellion [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.22 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche.

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  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
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  • Jay, John. “To Alexander Hamilton, 19 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 390–391.] [Last Accessed: 6 Nov 2017]
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Featured Image: Portrait of George Washington in Masonic Regalia by William Joseph Williams [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.215 – Source Notes



For more information on Feather Schwartz Foster, please visit her website at www.featherfoster.com check out her blog at featherfoster.wordpress.com, or reach out to her on Twitter @feathersfoster.

Sources used for this episode include:

  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017.
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York: Free Press, 2009.
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

1.21 – Source Notes



George Cabot by Samuel Griswold Goodrich [c. 1856], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

Special thanks to Ben Jacobs of the Wittenberg to Westphalia Podcast for providing the intro

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