Category Archives: Uncategorized

V003 – Interview with Jared Cohen, Accidental Presidents



Year(s) Discussed: 1835-2009

In this episode, I talk with Jared Cohen, author of Accidental Presidents: Eight Men Who Changed America, about the presidents who came to the office due to the untimely demise of their predecessor and how their becoming president altered the course of US history. In this wide-ranging discussion, we assess some of the successes and failures of these presidents as well as the history of how constitutional questions related to succession were answered and what questions still remain. Images used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Jared Cohen” by Esther Nisanova


2.22 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Niall Cooper of the Assassinations Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To John Marshall, 31 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4473. [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Ellsworth, Oliver. “To John Adams, 16 October 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4663. [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 1 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0004. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 4–5.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Samuel Dexter, 2 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0005. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, p. 6.] [Last Accessed: 23 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To John Adams, 1 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0036. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 51–52.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 3 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0039. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 54–56.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 9 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 131–132.] [Last Accessed: 11 Apr 2019]
  • The national intelligencer and Washington advertiser. (Washington City [D.C.]), 04 May 1801. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045242/1801-05-04/ed-1/seq-4/. [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].
  • “Treaty of Alliance Between The United States and France; February 6, 1778.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fr1788-2.asp. [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • “Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between The United States and France; February 6, 1778.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fr1788-1.asp [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 7 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0018. Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 15–17.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]

Featured Image: “The Signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine, 30th September 1800” by Victor Adam, courtesy of Wikipedia


V002 – Sources Used



  • “Portrait of George Washington” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_Washington_1795.jpg
  • “Washington’s First Inauguration” [c. 1899], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington%27s_Inauguration.jpg
  • “Thomas Jefferson” by John Trumbull [c. 1788], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thomas_Jefferson_by_John_Trumbull_1788.jpg
  • “Alexander Hamilton” by John Trumbull [c. 1806], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Trumbull_-_Alexander_Hamilton_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg
  • “Henry Knox” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1806], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_Knox_by_Gilbert_Stuart_1806.jpeg
  • “Edmund Randolph”, courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edmund_Randolph,_head-and-shoulders_portrait.jpg
  • “The First Presidential Mansion” by George Hayward [c. 1853], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_First_Presidential_Mansion.jpg
  • “The First Bank of the United States” by Jerry Landry [July 2017] http://presidencies.blubrry.com/2017/07/20/early-republic-sites-of-interest-in-philly/
  • “Alexander Macomb House” by George Hayward [c. 1831], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:New_York_Second_Presidential_Mansion.jpg
  • “Residence of Washington in High Street, Philada.” By William L Breton [c. 1828-1830], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PhiladelphiaPresidentsHouse.jpg
  • “James Madison” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1821], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JamesMadison.jpg
  • “Execution of Louis XVI” by Isidore Stanislas Helman and Antoine-Jean Duclos after Charles Monnet [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Execution_of_Louis_XVI.jpg
  • “Exécution de Robespierre et de ses complices conspirateurs contre la liberté et l’égalité : vive la Convention nationale qui par son énergie et surveillance a délivré la République de ses tyrans” [c. 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Execution_robespierre,_saint_just….jpg
  • “Portrait of Thomas Jefferson” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1791], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:T_Jefferson_by_Charles_Willson_Peale_1791_2.jpg
  • “Alexander Hamilton” [c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alexander_Hamilton_politician.jpg
  • “Washington’s Inauguration at Philadelphia” by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Washington%27s_inauguration_at_Philadelphia_cph.3g12011.jpg
  • “Famous Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania” [c. 1880], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whiskey_Insurrection.JPG
  • “The Whiskey Rebellion” [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WhiskeyRebellion.jpg
  • “Jay Treaty” [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jay%27s-treaty.jpg
  • “George Washington, 1795-1796” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1795-1796], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:George_Washington_by_Gilbert_Stuart,_1795-96.png
  • “John Adams” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1800-1815], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Adams,_Gilbert_Stuart,_c1800_1815.jpg
  • “George Washington” by Edward Savage [c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_Savage_George_Washington_1790.jpg
  • “George Washington” by Constantino Brumidi after Rembrandt Peale [c. 1855-1865], courtesy of Wikipedia https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constantino_Brumidi_George_Washington.jpg

2.21 – Source Notes



  • Beeman, Richard R. The Old Dominion & The New Nation, 1788-1801. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
  • “Decennial Census Official Publications: 1790.” United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade/decennial-publications.1790.html [Last Accessed: 5 May 2019]
  • “Decennial Census Official Publications: 1800.” United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade/decennial-publications.1800.html [Last Accessed: 5 May 2019]
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Fischer, David Hackett, and James C Kelly. Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. Charlottesville, VA and London: University of Virginia Press, 2000 [2000].
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Monroe, 14 July 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-26-02-0445. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 26, 11 May–31 August 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. 501–503.] [Last Accessed: 13 Apr 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 9 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 131–132.] [Last Accessed: 11 Apr 2019]
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Rawson, David, and the Dictionary of Virginia Biography. “Augustine Davis (ca. 1752 or 1753-1825).” Encyclopedia Virginia. https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Davis_Augustine_c_1752_or_1753-1825. [Last Accessed: 18 Apr 2019]
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Sublette, Ned, and Constance Sublette. The American Slave Coast: A History of the Slave-Breeding Industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2016.
  • Taylor, Alan. The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia 1772-1832. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2014 [2013].

Featured Image: “André Rigaud”, courtesy of Wikipedia


V001 – Sources Used



  • Bearfield, Domonic A. “What is Patronage? A Critical Reexamination.” Public Administration Review. 69:1 (Jan/Feb 2009) 64-76.
  • Bogle, Lori Lyn. “Pandering to the Crowd: The American Governing Elite’s Changing Views on Mass Media and Publicity.” Journalism History. 43:2 (Summer 2017) 62-74.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Morris, Edmund. The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: The Modern Library, 2001 [1979].
  • Neuzil, Mark. “Hearst, Roosevelt, and the Muckrake Speech of 1906: A New Perspective.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. 73:1 (Spring 1996) 29-39.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. Grant. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
  • “The Case for Tammany Hall Being On The Right Side Of History.” Fresh Air. NPR, Philadelphia, 5 Mar 2014.

Other Recommended Sources:

  • Allen, Oliver E. The Tiger: The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Da Capo Press, 1993.
  • Golway, Terry. Machine Made: Tammany Hall and the Creation of Modern American Politics. Liveright, 2004.
  • LaCerra, Charles. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Tammany Hall of New York. University Press of America, 1997.

Images Used in Video:

  • “The Treaty of Penn with the Indians” by Benjamin West [c. 1771-1772], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “George Clinton” by Ezra Ames [c. 1814], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Portrait of Aaron Burr, 1802” by John Vanderlyn [c. 1802], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Andrew Jackson” by Thomas Sully [c. 1824], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “William Marcy “Boss” Tweed” [c. before 1873], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Tammany Hall & 14th St West, New York City” by Irving Underhill [c. 1914], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Interior view of Tammany Hall decorated for the National Convention July 4th, 1868” by W C Rogers & Co [c. 1868], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Samuel Jones Tilden” by Frank Fowler [c. 1866-1910], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Theodore Roosevelt” by Harris and Ewing [c. 1901-1908], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Portrait of Charles F Murphy” by Falk [c. prior to 1903], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Photograph of Al Smith” by Harris & Ewing [c. 1920s-1930s], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “William Randolph Hearst” by James E Purdy [c. 1906], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933” by Elias Goldensky [c. 1933], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • “F. H. LaGuardia” by Bain News Service [c. 1915-1920], courtesy of Wikipedia

Featured Image: “William Marcy ‘Boss’ Tweed”


V001 – Tammany Hall and the Presidencies



Year(s) Discussed: 1789-1967

In response to Jacob from The Podcast on Germany‘s question, I examine the relationship between the historically influential political organization of Tammany Hall and the presidents of the United States. Whether in support of or in opposition to Tammany, many presidents over the centuries have interacted with this New York City institution.

The video version of this episode can be found at https://vimeo.com/331561127

Sources used for this episode and other recommended resources can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Tammany Hall & 14th St West, New York City” by Irving Underhill [c. 1914], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.20 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Jacob Collier of the Podcast on Germany for providing the intro quote for this episode!

For those who would like to support the podcast through the Wish List option, the link is now available!

  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 13 August 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-3877. [Last Accessed: 28 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, John. “21 May 1800, Proclamation—Granting Pardon to Certain Persons Engaged in Insurrection Against the United States in the Counties of Northampton, Montgomery, and Bucks, in the State of Pennsylvania.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202254 [Last Accessed: 23 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Charles Lee, 21 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4356. [Last Accessed: 27 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To James McHenry, 22 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4362. [Last Accessed: 5 Apr 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To William Stephens Smith, 26 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0680. [Last Accessed: 5 Apr 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Sc., Citizens of Georgetown, 31 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4388. [Last Accessed: 5 Apr 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 13 June 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0695. [Last Accessed: 5 Apr 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • McHenry, James. “To John Adams, 23 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4367. [Last Accessed: 5 Apr 2019]
  • “MONDAY,May 12, 1800.” Senate Executive Journal. Library of Congress. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(ej001623)) [Last Accessed: 27 Mar 2019]
  • Newman, Paul Douglas. Fries’s Rebellion: The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Owens, Robert M. Jefferson’s Hammer: William Henry Harrison and the Origins of American Indian Policy. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M, Jr, ed. History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971.
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Smith, William Stephens. “To John Adams, 21 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0674. [Last Accessed: 5 Apr 2019]
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “Samuel Chase” by John Beale Bordley [c. 1836], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.19 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Sarah Tanksalvala of the American History Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, Abigail Smith. “To William Smith, 16 January 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0558. [Last Accessed: 11 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail Smith. “To Abigail Amelia Adams Smith, 12 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0658. [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To United States Senate, 7 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4306. [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 10 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4324. [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Timothy Pickering, 12 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4328. [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Allen, W B; and Seth Ames, eds. Works of Fisher Ames: Volume II. Indianapolis, IN: LibertyClassics, 1983 [1854].
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1956.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Congressional Research Service. Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables. 26 Nov 2018. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/97-1011.pdf [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • “Dexter, Samuel, (1761-1816).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000296. [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Edvinsson, Rodney. Historical Currency Converter (test version 1.0). http://www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html. [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019)
  • Garland, Hugh A. The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1970 [1850].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Izard, 27 February 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0202. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 267–268.] [Last Accessed: 12 March 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Theodore Sedgwick, [4 May 1800],” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0365-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 444–453.] [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To John Jay, 7 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0378. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 464–467.] [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Izard, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 25 February 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0190. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 251–252.] [Last Accessed: 12 Mar 2019]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Marshall, John. “To John Adams, 8 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4314. [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • McHenry, James. “To George Washington, 10 November 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0339. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 397–402.] [Last Accessed: 12 Mar 2019]
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • “Randolph, John, (1773-1833).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=R000047. [Last Accessed: 11 Mar 2019]
  • Randolph, John, Jr. “To John Adams, 11 January 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4135. [Last Accessed: 11 Mar 2019]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Sedgwick, Theodore. “To Alexander Hamilton, 7 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0379. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 467–468.] [Last Accessed: 17 Mar 2019]
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany. “Treaty of Amity and Commerce.” https://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/treatamity8300.htm [Last Accessed: 13 Mar 2019]
  • Welch, Richard E, Jr. Theodore Sedgwick, Federalist: A Political Portrait. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1965.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “Theodore Sedgwick” by Edgar Parker [c. 1888], courtesy of Wikipedia


30.000 – Body by Calvin Coolidge



Year(s) Discussed: 1872-1933

How much do you really know about America’s 30th president? Did you even remember that he was a president? In this show Jess and Joe explore the little known facts of one our most overlooked presidents in history. Sit back and relax as we turn an often forgotten president into one of your new favorites. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://cuttingclasspodcast.com

Featured Image: “Calvin Coolidge the Bodybuilder”, courtesy of the Cutting Class Podcast


2.18 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To Cotton Tufts, 1 January 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0548. [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2019]
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Ford, Worthington Chauncey, ed. Writings of John Quincy Adams, Vol. II 1796-1801. New York: The MacMillan Co, 1913.
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, KS; Manhattan, KS; and Wichita, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1974 [1974].
  • Miller, Hunter. “The Barbary Treaties 1786-1816, Tunis 1797: Hunter Miller’s Notes.” Avalon Project. Yale University. Source: Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America. Edited by Hunter Miller, Volume 2, Documents 1-40 : 1776-1818, Washington : Government Printing Office, 1931. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/bar1797n.asp#n5 [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].

Featured Image: “USS Constellation engaging la Vengeance” by Irwin John Bevan, courtesy of Wikipedia