Category Archives: Uncategorized

S004 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Logan of From Boomers to Millennials, Rosie of History, Eh?, Alex H of Ohio v the World, and Chris of the History of China for providing the intro quotes for this episode! Special thanks also to my husband Alex for providing one of the intro quotes as well as for his audio editing assistance.

If you are so inclined as to leave a review for the podcast to benefit Podchaser’s Reviews4Good benefit where Podchaser will donate to the Meals For Wheels COVID-19 response fund for every review of a podcast or podcast episode left on their website, go to www.podchaser.com and search for “Presidencies” then search for some of your other favorite podcasts and leave them reviews as well. For every review left for this podcast, be it good, bad, or indifferent, I’ll reply with my thanks in order to double the donation.

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Bourne, Edward G, et al, eds. Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1902, Volume II. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1903. https://books.google.com/books?id=rbMOAQAAMAAJ&newbks=1&newbks_redir=0&dq=salmon%20chase%20papers&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2020]
  • Dangerfield, George. The Era of Good Feelings. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1952.
  • Donald, David, ed. Inside Lincoln’s Cabinet: The Civil War Diaries of Salmon P Chase. New York, London, & Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co, 1954.
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006 [2005].
  • Gould, Lewis L. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Hopkins, James F. “Election of 1824.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 349-381.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Richard Rush, 13 October 1824,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/98-01-02-4620. [Last Accessed: 8 Apr 2020]
  • Klingaman, William K. Abraham Lincoln and the Road to Emancipation, 1861-1865. New York: Viking, 2001.
  • Landry, Jerry. Harrison Podcast. 2016-2017. http://whhpodcast.blubrry.com/
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time, Volume Six: The Sage of Monticello. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co, 1981.
  • McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • McGuiness, Colleen, ed. American Leaders 1789-1994: A Biographical Summary. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1994.
  • McPherson, James M. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction, Third Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001 [1982].
  • McPherson, James M. Tried By War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. New York: Penguin, 2008.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Nevins, Allen. Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co, 1936.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. New York: W W Norton & Co, 1991.
  • Sears, Stephen W. George B McClellan: The Young Napoleon. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1988.
  • Stone, Irving. They Also Ran: The Story of the Men Who Were Defeated for the Presidency. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Co Inc, 1943.
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Andrew Johnson: A Biography. Newtown, CT: American Political Biography Press, 2009 [1989].
  • Turner, Lynn W. “Elections of 1816 and 1820.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 299-336.
  • Wiltse, Charles M, ed. The Papers of Daniel Webster: Correspondence, Volume 2, 1825-1829. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1976.

Featured Images: “John Quincy Adams” by George Peter Alexander Healy [c. 1858], courtesy of Wikipedia and “Andrew Jackson” by Thomas Sully [c. 1824], courtesy of Wikipedia


Balcerski Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing audio editing assistance with this episode!

Links to some of our guest’s other appearances are as follows:

Featured Images: “William R King” by George Cooke [c. 1839], courtesy of Wikipedia, and “Harriet Lane” [c. 1860], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.15 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Shawn Warswick of the American History Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode, and special thanks to Alex for providing audio editing assistance with this episode!

  • Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2000.
  • Calloway, Colin. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
  • Cotterill, R S. The Southern Indians: The Story of the Civilized Tribes Before Removal. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971 [1954].
  • Davis, Harold E. The Fledgling Province: Social and Cultural Life in Colonial Georgia, 1733-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1976.
  • Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2014.
  • Henri, Florette. The Southern Indians and Benjamin Hawkins 1796-1816. Norman, OK and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.
  • Kay, Marvin L Michael; and Lorin Lee Cary. Slavery in North Carolina, 1748-1775. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
  • Landry, Jerry. Presidencies Podcast. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • McGuiness, Colleen, ed. American Leaders 1789-1994: A Biographical Summary. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1994.
  • Ostler, Jeffrey. Surviving Genocide: Native Nations and the United States from the American Revolution to Bleeding Kansas. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2019.
  • Treuer, Anton. Atlas of Indian Nations. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2013.
  • Weir, Robert M. Colonial South Carolina: A History. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1997 [1983].
  • Wilson, James. The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999 [1998].

Featured Image: “Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs” by Edward Chatfield [c. 1825], courtesy of Wikipedia


From Me to All of You: A Quick Note



With the current global situation, I wanted to send out a quick note to express that my thoughts are with all of you out there and to assure you that Presidencies will continue (including with a new special episode coming out on Sunday, March 22nd!). Take care, everyone!


3.14 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Robin for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Hilt, Douglas. The Troubled Trinity: Goody and the Spanish Monarchs. Tuscaloosa, AL and London: University of Alabama Press, 1987.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To James Madison, 20 May 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0019. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 18–20.] [Last Accessed: 20 Feb 2020]
  • Lyon, E Wilson. Louisiana in French Diplomacy 1759-1804. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 9 April 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0601. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 497–498.] [Last Accessed: 9 Feb 2020]
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 18 May 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0012. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 12–13.] [Last Accessed: 20 Feb 2020]
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 7 June 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 72–77.] [Last Accessed: 20 Feb 2020]
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 8 June 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0092. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, p. 81.] [Last Accessed: 20 Feb 2020]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].

Featured Image: “Portrait de François, marquis de Barbé-Marbois (1745-1837)” by Jean François Boisselat [c. 1835], courtesy of Wikipedia


S003 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Jessica and Howard from Plodding Through the Presidents, Peter from Badger State: A Wisconsin History Podcast, and Robin for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Black, Christine M, and Thomas Oliphant. All by Myself: The Unmaking of a Presidential Campaign. Chester, CT: The Globe Pequot Press, 1989.
  • Brands, H W. Reagan: The Life. New York: Doubleday, 2015.
  • Busch, Andrew E. Reagan’s Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2005.
  • Cannon, James. Gerald R. Ford: An Honorable Life. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2013.
  • Carter, Jimmy. White House Diary. New York: Picador, 2011 [2010].
  • CBS News Staff. “Super Tuesday At A Glance.” CBS News. 6 Mar 2000. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/super-tuesday-at-a-glance/ [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2020]
  • Dole, Robert. “29 Feb 1988, Dole Presidential Campaign Speech.” C-SPAN. https://www.c-span.org/video/?1823-1/dole-presidential-campaign-speech [Last Accessed: 21 Feb 2020]
  • Edwards, Elizabeth. Saving Graces: Finding Solace and Strength From Friends and Strangers. New York: Broadway Books, 2006.
  • Germond, Jack W, and Jules Witcover. Blue Smoke and Mirrors: How Reagan Won and Why Carter Lost the Election of 1980. New York: Viking Press, 1981.
  • Germond, Jack W, and Jules Witcover. Whose Broad Stripes and Bright Stars? The Trivial Pursuit of the Presidency 1988. New York: Warner Books, 1989.
  • Glenn, John, and Nick Taylor. John Glenn: A Memoir. New York: Bantam Books, 1999.
  • Mayer, Jane, and Doyle McManus. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President 1984-1988. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1988.
  • Meacham, Jon. Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush. New York: Random House, 2015.
  • Mondale, Walter, and David Hage. The Good Fight: A Life in Liberal Politics. New York: Scribner, 2010.
  • Reagan, Nancy, and William Novak. My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan. New York: Random House, 1989.
  • Reeves, Richard. President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • United Press International. “Ford, Carter head into crucial Super Tuesday.” Lodi News-Sentinel. 3 Jun 1976. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Oe1fAAAAIBAJ&sjid=YzIHAAAAIBAJ&dq=super-tuesday&pg=6816%2C3038734 [Last Accessed: 27 Jan 2020]
  • White, Theodore H. America in Search of Itself: The Making of the President, 1956-1980. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.
  • Witcover, Jules. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency 1972-1976. New York: Viking Press, 1977.
  • Zelnick, Bob. Gore: A Political Life. Washington, DC: Regnery, 1999.

Featured Image: “Republican Debate with Ronald Reagan, Philip Crane, George Bush and John Anderson with moderator Eric Sevareid in Chicago, Illinois.” [13 Mar 1980], courtesy of Wikipedia


S003 – The Super Tuesday Spectacular



Year(s) Discussed: 1976-1988

Super Tuesday happens at least once every four years in the modern US presidential election cycle, but how much does anyone really know about this date on the campaign calendar? In this episode, I explore the history of Super Tuesday and how it impacted numerous presidential elections in the past. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Senator Edward Kennedy meets with Jimmy Carter.” [5 Dec 1977], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.13 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode, and be sure to check out my recent appearance on History’s What If – thanks to Phillip for inviting me on!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Fedorak, Charles John. Henry Addington, Prime Minister, 1801-1804: Peace, War, and Parliamentary Politics. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2002.
  • Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.
  • Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800-1878. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, 3 June 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0011. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 11–16.] [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To the Senate, 11 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0269. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 312–313.] [Last Accessed: 7 Feb 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Lewis Harvie, 25 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0341. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 392–393.] [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Lewis Harvie, 28 February 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0505. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 597–598.] [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Benjamin H. Latrobe, 6 March 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-40-02-0021. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 40, 4 March–10 July 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, pp. 16–17.] [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Hay, 2 June 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5683. [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • King, Rufus. “To James Madison, 8 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-02-02-0240. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 2, 1 August 1801 – 28 February 1802, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993, pp. 163–164.] [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • King, Rufus. “To Alexander Hamilton, 8 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0317. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 598–599.] [Last Accessed: 1 Feb 2020]
  • King, Rufus. “To James Madison, 5 August 1802 (Abstract),” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-03-02-0576. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 3, 1 March–6 October 1802, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995, pp. 457–458.] [Last Accessed: 2 Feb 2020]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To James Madison, 1 September 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-03-02-0673. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 3, 1 March–6 October 1802, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995, pp. 536–537.] [Last Accessed: 8 Feb 2020]
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To James Madison, 18 February 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0405. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 328–333.] [Last Accessed: 8 Feb 2020]
  • Lyon, E Wilson. Louisiana in French Diplomacy 1759-1804. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1934.
  • Madison, James. “To Rufus King, 16 December 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0210. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 192–194.] [Last Accessed: 2 Feb 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To Robert R. Livingston, 18 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0304. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 259–261.] [Last Accessed: 8 Feb 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 2 March 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0449. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 379–381.] [Last Accessed: 7 Feb 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.

Featured Image: “Meriwether Lewis” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1807], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.12 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Robert Van Ness of the Virginia History Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • “Enabling Act of 1802 (Transcript).” Ohio History Central. Ohio History Connection. https://ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Enabling_Act_of_1802_(Transcript). [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2020]
  • Fenster, Julie M. Jefferson’s America: The President, the Purchase, and the Explorers Who Transformed a Nation. New York: Broadway Books, 2016.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To the Senate and the House of Representatives, 18 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0303. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 350–354.] [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To the House of Representatives, 3 February 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0381. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 443–444.] [Last Accessed: 24 Jan 2020]
  • Jenkinson, Clay S. The Character of Meriwether Lewis: Explorer in the Wilderness. Washburn, ND: The Dakota Institute Press of the Lewis & Clark Fort Mandan Foundation, 2011.
  • Johnson, Herbert A. “Marbury v. Madison.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 521-523.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Madison, James. “To Arthur St. Clair, 23 June 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-03-02-0400. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 3, 1 March–6 October 1802, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995, p. 332.] [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To Arthur St. Clair, 22 November 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0140. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, p. 132.] [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Meacham, Jon. Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Ostler, Jeffrey. Surviving Genocide: Native Nations and the United States from the American Revolution to Bleeding Kansas. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2019.
  • Roddy, Dennis B. “Buried in Greensburg, Arthur St. Clair a forgotten Revolutionary.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 22 Nov 2009. https://www.post-gazette.com/local/westmoreland/2009/11/22/Buried-in-Greensburg-Arthur-St-Clair-a-forgotten-Revolutionary/stories/200911220269 [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2020]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • “St. Clair, Arthur (1734-1818).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-Present. http://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=S000763. [Last Accessed: 19 Jan 2020]
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. Supreme Decisions: Great Constitutional Cases and Their Impact, Volume One, To 1896. New York: Routledge, 2018 [2012].
  • Utter, William T. The Frontier State: 1803-1825, A History of the State of Ohio Volume II. Columbus, OH: Ohio Historical Society, 1968 [1942].

Featured Image: “Levi Lincoln” by James Sullivan Lincoln [c. 1865], courtesy of United States Department of Justice


S002 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Vicky and Erik of the Ransack History podcast, Steve of the History of the Papacy and Beyond the Big Screen podcasts, Sean of the Second Decade podcast, and Alex for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Appleton, Rory. “Nevada key to politics nationwide in 2020.” Las Vegas Review-Journal. 27 Dec 2019. https://www.reviewjournal.com/news/politics-and-government/nevada/nevada-key-to-politics-nationwide-in-2020-1922519/ [Last Accessed: 14 Jan 2020]
  • Busch, Andrew E. Reagan’s Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2005.
  • Bush, George. All the Best, George Bush: My Life in Letters and Other Writings. New York: Scribner, 1999.
  • Canellos, Peter S., ed. Last Lion: The Fall and Rise of Ted Kennedy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
  • Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2004.
  • Heldman, Caroline; Meredith Conroy; and Alissa R Ackerman. Sex and Gender in the 2016 Presidential Election. Santa Barbara, CA and Denver, CO: Praeger, 2018.
  • Iowa PBS. “1968 Creates Need for Change.” Caucus Iowa: Journey to the Presidency. https://wtvi.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/iptv_caucusiowa_02_1968/iptv_caucusiowa_02_1968/ [Last Accessed: 14 Jan 2020]
  • Iowa PBS. “George McGovern’s Early Momentum in 1972.” Caucus Iowa: Journey to the Presidency. https://wtvi.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/iptv_caucusiowa_03_1972/iptv_caucusiowa_03_1972/ [Last Accessed: 14 Jan 2020]
  • Kennedy, Edward M. True Compass: A Memoir. New York: Twelve, 2009.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2019-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Miroff, Bruce. The Liberals’ Moment: The McGovern Insurgency and the Identity Crisis of the Democratic Party. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2007.
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Featured Image: “Senator George McGovern speaking into a microphone” by Warren K Leffler [30 Jun 1972], courtesy of Wikipedia