Category Archives: Uncategorized

1.36 – Source Notes



  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 25 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0119. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 228–230.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Bartoloni-Tuazon, Kathleen. For Fear of an Elective King: George Washington and the Presidential Title Controversy of 1789. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press, 2014.
  • Calloway, Colin G. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Lossing, Benson, J, ed. The Diary of George Washington, From 1789 to 1791. New York: Charles B Richardson & Co, 1860.
  • Morgan, Lewis H. League of the Ho-De’-No-Sau-Nee or Iroquois. Herbert M Lloyd, ed. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co, 1922 [1851].
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 21 July 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 201–204.] [Last Accessed: 4 Aug 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Podcasts mentioned in the episode:

Featured Image: Statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall, New York City, NY courtesy of me


2.02 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To John Adams, 7 May 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-01-02-0259. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 1, December 1761 – May 1776, ed. Lyman H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 401–403.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To James Lovell, 15 December 1777,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-02-02-0298. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 2, June 1776 – March 1778, ed. L. H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 370–372.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 25 June 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0017. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp. 99–100.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Josiah Quincy Jr., 18 September 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0046. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, p. 168.] [Last Accessed: 17 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 7 October 1775,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0096. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 188–191.] [Last Accessed: 24 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775 [1],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0108. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 212–214.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775 [2],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0109. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 214–215.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0110. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 215–216.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 15 May 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0079. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, February–August 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 186–187.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To John Lowell, 12 June 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0113. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, February–August 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 249–250.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 1776]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 3 July 1776.” Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. https://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/archive/doc?id=L17760703jasecond. [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Diary Entry, 26 April 1779.” Adams Papers Digital Edition. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/publications/adams-papers/view?id=ADMS-01-02-02-0009-0003-0010. [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Robert R. Livingston, 31 October 1782,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-14-02-0002. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 14, October 1782–May 1783, ed. Gregg L. Lint, C. James Taylor, Hobson Woodward, Margaret A. Hogan, Mary T. Claffey, Sara B. Sikes, and Judith S. Graham. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008, pp. 2–6.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 2 May 1785,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-17-02-0040. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 17, April–November 1785, ed. Gregg L. Lint, C. James Taylor, Sara Georgini, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Amanda A. Mathews, and Sara Martin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014, pp. 75–82.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Cotton Tufts, 27 August 1787,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-08-02-0064. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 8, March 1787 – December 1789, ed. C. James Taylor, Margaret A. Hogan, Jessie May Rodrique, Gregg L. Lint, Hobson Woodward, and Mary T. Claffey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 149.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John, and Abigail Adams. “To James Warren, 9 April 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0009. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp. 82–84.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2018]
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Gelles, Edith B. Abigail & John: Portrait of a Marriage. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
  • Gerry, Elbridge. “To John Adams, 29 September 1779,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-08-02-0124. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 8, March 1779 – February 1780, ed. Gregg L. Lint, Robert J. Taylor, Richard Alan Reyerson, Celeste Walker, and Joanna M. Revelas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989, pp. 179–184.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the Virginian: Jefferson and His Time Volume One. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1948.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Rights of Man: Jefferson and His Time Volume Two. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co, 1951.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume I 1735-1784. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “John Adams,” John Trumbull [c. 1792/1793], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.01 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote for this episode!

Featured Image: “Abigail Adams,” Benjamin Blyth [c. 1766], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.35 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Michael Troy of the American Revolution Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To George Washington, 22 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0270. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 351–352.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 19 May 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0258. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 21, April 1797 – July 1798, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 466–468.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 3 August 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-17-02-0023. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 17, 31 March 1797–3 March 1801 and supplement 22 January 1778–9 August 1795, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, pp. 33–37.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 29 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0374. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 469–472.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 4 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0126. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 178.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Lafayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de. “To George Washington, 6 October 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0338. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 384–386.] [Last Accessed: 9 May 2018]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Langhorne, John. [Peter Carr] “To George Washington, 25 September 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0327. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 373–375.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Nicholas, John. “To George Washington, 9 December 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0453. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 509–511.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Spalding, Paul S. Lafayette: Prisoner of State. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.
  • Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. “To George Washington, 22 June 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0111. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 143–144.] [Last Accessed: 15 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Joseph Habersham, 8 August 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00826. [Last Accessed: 9 May 2018]
  • Washington, George.”To Thomas Jefferson, 28 August 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0136. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, p. 178.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “T o John Langhorne [Peter Carr], 15 October 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0364. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, p. 409.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Nicholas, 8 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0112. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 127–129.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 16 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0328. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 423–426.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Bushrod Washington, 12 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0411. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 514–515.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Richard Raynal Keene, 28 December 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0201. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 291.] [Last Accessed: 16 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 21 July 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 201–204.] [Last Accessed: 15 May 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Featured Image: “A view on Mount Vernon with the Washington family on the terrace”, Benjamin Henry Latrobe [16 Jul 1796], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.34 – Source Notes



Special thanks to James Early, Steve Guerra, and Alex Slawson for voicing George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson respectively in the intro for this episode! After listening to this episode, check out the History of the Papacy and the Beyond the Big Screen podcasts by going to A to Z History or by searching for them on iTunes or anywhere else podcasts can be found. Also, go to Facebook and join the American History Fanatics group!

Map of the electoral vote for the 1796 presidential election, courtesy of Wikipedia

  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 20 January 1796,” Founding Families: Digital Editions of the Papers of the Winthrops and the Adamses,C. James Taylor. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 2018. http://www.masshist.org/apde2/ [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 10 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0086. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 171–172.] [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 15 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0090. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 177–179.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 25 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0119. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 228–230.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 27 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0237. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 462–463.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2018]
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • “Cockade.” Merriam-Webster. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cockade [Last Accessed: 30 Apr 2018]
  • Duane, William. “A letter to George Washington, president of the United States: containing strictures on his address of the seventeenth of September, 1796, notifying his relinquishment of the presidential office. / By Jasper Dwight, of Vermont.” Philadelphia, PA: Benjamin Franklin Bache, 1796. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/evans/N23664.0001.001/1:2?rgn=div1;view=fulltext [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 5 November 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-01062. [Last Accessed: 18 Apr 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William Branch Giles, 31 December 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0440. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 565–567.] [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Edward Rutledge, 27 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0189. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 231–233.] [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 8 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0313. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, p. 448.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 30 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0223. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 280–281.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 15 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00183. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Kohn, Richard H. Eagle and Sword: The Beginnings of the Military Establishment in America. New York: The Free Press, 1975.
  • Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 5 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0173. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 214–215.] [Last Accessed: 30 Apr 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • National Archives and Records Administration. “Electoral College Box Scores 1789-1996.” https://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/scores.html#1796 [Last Accessed: 3 May 2018]
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 7 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00265. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 10 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00274. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. “To George Washington, 23 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00212. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Tobias Lear, 30 March 1796.” The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799: Volume 35: March 30, 1796-July 31, 1797. John C Fitzpatrick, ed. 1939. https://books.google.com/books?id=ooGyAwAAQBAJ&lpg=PA6&ots=ObAdia1hSZ&dq=is%20large%20enough%20to%20receive%20a%20bed%20for%20you%20and%20it%20is%20needless%20to%20add%20we%20shall%20be%20glad%20of%20your%20company&pg=PA6#v=onepage&q&f=false [Last Accessed: 29 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “Farewell Address,” September 19, 1796. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65539. [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 3 November 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0243. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 366–367.] [Last Accessed: 18 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “Special Message,” January 19, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65533. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 2 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00379. [Last Accessed: 6 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 3 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00393. Last Accessed: 6 May 2018

Featured Image: “Patrick Henry” by George Bagby Matthews [c. 1891], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.33 – Source Notes



Special thanks to David Severa of the Early and Often podcast for providing this episode’s intro quote

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 5 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0058. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 122–123.] [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 7 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0061. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 130–131.] [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 20 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0066. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 141–142.] [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Durham, Walter T. Before Tennessee: The Southwest Territory 1790-1796. Piney Flats, TN: Rocky Mount Historical Association, 1990.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “The Defence No. I, [22 July 1795],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0305-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 479–489.] [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Timothy Pickering, [10 May 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0103. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 167–168.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [10 May 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0105-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 173–174.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, [15 June 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0138. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 223–224.] [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 5 July 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0157. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 246–248.] [Last Accessed: 27 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, 16 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0285. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 444–447.] [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2018]
  • Hamilton, Stanislaus Murray, ed. The Writings of James Monroe, Including a Collection of his Public and Private Papers and Correspondence Now for the First Time Printed, Volume II. 1794-1796. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, 1899.
  • Jay, John. “To George Washington from John Jay, 18 April 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00452. [Last Accessed: 7 Apr 2018]
  • King, Rufus. “To Alexander Hamilton, 2 May [1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0092-0001. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 151–152.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. http://presidencies.blubrry.com. 2018.
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 26 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0155. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 232–234.] [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Marshall, John. “To George Washington, 11 July 1796.” The Papers of John Marshall Volume III: Correspondence and Papers, January 1796-December 1798. William C Stinchcombe and Charles T Cullen, eds. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. pp. 32-33
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington from Timothy Pickering, 12 May 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00513. [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1998 [1996].
  • Spalding, Paul S. Lafayette: Prisoner of State. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • “Treaty of Friendship, Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and The United States; October 27, 1795.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. [Original Source: Teaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America, Volume 2, Documents 1-40: 1776-1818. Hunter Miller, ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1931.] http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/sp1795.asp [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 15 May 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0106. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 174–178.] [Last Accessed: 10 Apr 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Marshall, 8 July 1796,” The Papers of John Marshall Volume III: Correspondence and Papers, January 1796-December 1798. William C Stinchcombe and Charles T Cullen, eds. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. pp. 33-34.
  • Washington, George. “Transcription: Washington’s First Draft for an Address.” New York State Library, last modified December 5, 2016. [Original Source: Washington’s Farewell Address, ed. Victor Hugo Paltsits. New York: New York Public Library, 1935.] http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/mssc/washington/farewell.htm. [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Thomas Pinckney,” W C Armstrong, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.32 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Rene Bruzon, better known as Reen, of Reen’s Time Machine for providing the intro quote!

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Bernhard, Winfred E A. Fisher Ames: Federalist and Statesman 1758-1808. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.
  • Buchanan, James. “Oliver Ellsworth.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Cushman, Clare, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995. p. 46-50.
  • Cassell, Frank A. Merchant Congressman in the Young Republic: Samuel Smith of Maryland, 1752-1839. Madison, WI; Milwaukee, WI; and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1971.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Cushman, Clare. “William Cushing.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Cushman, Clare, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995. p. 11-15.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Ellsworth, Oliver.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 252.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hall, Kermit L, ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, [7 March 1796],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0038-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 68–69.] [Last Accessed: 31 Mar 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 24 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0053. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 81–82.] [Last Accessed: 31 Mar 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 28 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0055. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 83–85.] [Last Accessed: 31 Mar 2018]
  • Haw, James. “Samuel Chase.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Cushman, Clare, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995. p. 41-45.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 21 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0052. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 88–89.] [Last Accessed: 30 Mar 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Philip Mazzei, 24 April 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0054-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp. 81–83.] [Last Accessed: 26 Mar 2018]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 31 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0125. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 208–210.] [Last Accessed: 30 Mar 2018]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 26 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0155. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 232–234.] [Last Accessed: 6 Apr 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, KS; Manhattan, KS; and Wichita, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1974 [1974].
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To Alexander Hamilton, 17 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 435–441.] [Last Accessed: 26 Mar 2018]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Rogers, George C, Jr. Evolution of a Federalist: William Loughton Smith of Charleston (1758-1812). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1967 [1962].
  • Spalding, Paul S. Lafayette: Prisoner of State. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.
  • Warrington, David R. “Cushing, William.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 213-214.
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 13 February 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0029. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, p. 55.] [Last Accessed: 31 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “Message to the House of Representatives Regarding Documents Relative to the Jay Treaty,” March 30, 1796. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65520. [Last Accessed: 31 Mar 2018]

Featured Image: “David Filippo Mazzei” by Jacques-Louis David [c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia


Folk painting of enslaved people dancing to banjo music

1.31 – Source Notes



Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of Their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017.
  • Finkelman, Paul. “Fugitive Slaves.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 319-320.
  • Historical Currency Converter (test version 1.0). http://www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html. [Last Accessed: 19 Mar 2018)
  • Mount Vernon Official Guidebook. Mount Vernon, VA: Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association of the Union, 2001 [1974].
  • Washington, George. “To Tobias Lear, 12 April 1791,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-08-02-0062. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 8, 22 March 1791 – 22 September 1791, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 84–86.] [Last Accessed: 12 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Anthony Whitting, 20 January 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0013. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 31–36.] [Last Accessed: 14 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To William Pearce, 8 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0424. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 632–634.] [Last Accessed: 18 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Oliver Wolcott, Jr., 1 September 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00910. [Last Accessed: 19 Mar 2018]
  • Whitting, Anthony. “To George Washington, 16 January 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0005. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 5–14.] [Last Accessed: 14 Mar 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Featured Image: “The Old Plantation” by unknown [c. late 1700s], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.30 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Lynn Perkins of The History of the Ottoman Empire for providing the intro quote!

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • “Attorney General: Charles Lee.” The United States Department of Justice. 7 July 2017. https://www.justice.gov/ag/bio/lee-charles. [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • “Carrington, Edward, (1748-1810),” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000183. [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Cullen, Charles T, and Herbert A Johnson, eds. The Papers of John Marshall Volume II: Correspondence and Papers, July 1788-December 1795, Account Book, July 1788-December 1795. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.
  • Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • “A Guide to the Executive Papers of Governor Patrick Henry, 1784-1786.” Library of Virginia. http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=lva/vi00438.xml. [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 3 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0046. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 296–298.] [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 5 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0074. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 395–398.] [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • Ireland, Robert M. “Rutledge, John.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 750-751.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Adams, 17 August 1785,” The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson & Abigail & John Adams. Lester J Cappon, ed. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959]. p. 53-54.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Marshall, John. “To George Washington, 31 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0406. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, p. 617.] [Last Accessed: 7 Mar 2018]
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. Life of General Thomas Pinckney. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co, 1895.
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Thomas, Evan. John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
  • Washington, George. “Circular to Barbary Powers, 30 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0470. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 702–703.] [Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Marshall, 26 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0391. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 597–598.] [Last Accessed: 7 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Edward Carrington, 28 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0484. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, p. 742.] [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 355–363.] [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Wermiel, Stephen. “SCOTUS for law students (sponsored by Bloomberg Law): Recess appointments and the Court.” SCOTUSblog. 15 February 2013. http://www.scotusblog.com/2013/02/scotus-for-law-students-sponsored-by-bloomberg-law-recess-appointments-and-the-court/ [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • Whichard, Willis P. Justice James Iredell. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “John Rutledge,” Robert Hinkley (based on a painting by John Trumbull), courtesy of Wikipedia


1.29 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Cabot, George. “To George Washington, 16 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0451. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 694–696.] [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
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