Category Archives: Uncategorized

1.30 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Lynn Perkins of The History of the Ottoman Empire for providing the intro quote!

Audio editing by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • “Attorney General: Charles Lee.” The United States Department of Justice. 7 July 2017. https://www.justice.gov/ag/bio/lee-charles. [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • “Carrington, Edward, (1748-1810),” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000183. [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Cullen, Charles T, and Herbert A Johnson, eds. The Papers of John Marshall Volume II: Correspondence and Papers, July 1788-December 1795, Account Book, July 1788-December 1795. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.
  • Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • “A Guide to the Executive Papers of Governor Patrick Henry, 1784-1786.” Library of Virginia. http://ead.lib.virginia.edu/vivaxtf/view?docId=lva/vi00438.xml. [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 3 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0046. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 296–298.] [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 5 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0074. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 395–398.] [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • Ireland, Robert M. “Rutledge, John.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 750-751.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Adams, 17 August 1785,” The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson & Abigail & John Adams. Lester J Cappon, ed. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959]. p. 53-54.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Marshall, John. “To George Washington, 31 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0406. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, p. 617.] [Last Accessed: 7 Mar 2018]
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. Life of General Thomas Pinckney. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co, 1895.
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Thomas, Evan. John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
  • Washington, George. “Circular to Barbary Powers, 30 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0470. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 702–703.] [Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Marshall, 26 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0391. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 597–598.] [Last Accessed: 7 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Edward Carrington, 28 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0484. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, p. 742.] [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 355–363.] [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Wermiel, Stephen. “SCOTUS for law students (sponsored by Bloomberg Law): Recess appointments and the Court.” SCOTUSblog. 15 February 2013. http://www.scotusblog.com/2013/02/scotus-for-law-students-sponsored-by-bloomberg-law-recess-appointments-and-the-court/ [Last Accessed: 9 Mar 2018]
  • Whichard, Willis P. Justice James Iredell. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2000.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “John Rutledge,” Robert Hinkley (based on a painting by John Trumbull), courtesy of Wikipedia


1.29 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

  • Cabot, George. “To George Washington, 16 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0451. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 694–696.] [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Frestel, Felix. “To George Washington, 31 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0403. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 612–614.] [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 16 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0057. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 324–328.] [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 19 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0089. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 452–453.] [Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]
  • Johnson, Thomas. “To George Washington, 29 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0398. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 606–607.] [Last Accessed: 19 Feb 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 2 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0410. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 621–624.] [Last Accessed: 21 Feb 2018]
  • Lafayette, George Washington Motier. “To George Washington, 31 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0405. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 616–617.] [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2018]
  • Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. “To George Washington, 16 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0454. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 699–700.] [Last Accessed: 19 Feb 2018]
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 21 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0467. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 720–721.] [Last Accessed: 25 Feb 2018]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Washington, George. “To Frederick William II of Prussia, 15 January 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0058. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 75–77.] [Last Accessed: 21 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Randolph, 22 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0284. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 403–406.] [Last Accessed: 25 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Randolph, 20 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0373. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 571–572.] [Last Accessed: 25 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Thomas Johnson, 24 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0385. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 590–591.] [Last Accessed: 19 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 24 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0386. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 591–592.] [Last Accessed: 19 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To George Cabot, 7 September 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0425. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 642–643.] [Last Accessed: 23 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “[Diary Entry: 8 September 1795].” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/01-06-02-0004-0010-0001. [Original source: The Diaries of George Washington, vol. 6, 1 January 1790 – 13 December 1799, ed. Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979, p. 211.] [Last Accessed: 21 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 355–363.] [Last Accessed: 8 Mar 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0066. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 354–355.] [Last Accessed: 26 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 10 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0076. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, p. 400.] [Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 18 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0088. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 449–451.] [Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 23 November 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0091. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 455–457.] [Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]

Featured Image: Oliver Wolcott, Jr by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1820], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.28 – Source Notes



“The Greenville Treaty Line” by William E Peters [c. 1918], courtesy of Wikipedia
  • Booraem, Hendrik V. A Child of the Revolution: William Henry Harrison and His World, 1773-1798. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 2012.
  • “Bradford, William to Washington, George during Washington Presidency.” Founders Online. Online search. https://www.founders.archives.gov/?q=%20Author%3A%22Bradford%2C%20William%22%20Recipient%3A%22Washington%2C%20George%22&s=1111211111&sa=bradford&r=1 [Last Accessed: 11 Feb 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne’s Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008 [2004].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 26 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0062. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 350–352.] [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2018]
  • Hogeland, William. The Whiskey Rebellion: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and the Frontier Rebels Who Challenged America’s Newfound Sovereignty. New York: Scribner, 2006.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. http://presidencies.blubrry.com. 2017-2018.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 31 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0323. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 481–483.] [Last Accessed: 6 Feb 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 19 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0368. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 563–565.] [Last Accessed: 11 Feb 2018]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Smith, Mark A. “Andrew Brown’s ‘Earnest Endeavor’: The Federal Gazette’s Role in Philadelphia’s Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 120:4 [Oct 1996] 321-342.
  • Tagg, James D. “Benjamin Franklin Bache’s Attack on George Washington.” The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 100:2 (Apr 1976) 191-230.
  • “The Treaty of Greenville 1795.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/greenvil.asp [Last Accessed: 5 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Marshall, 26 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0391. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 597–598.][Last Accessed: 27 Feb 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton from George Washington, 29 October 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified February 1, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-19-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 19, July 1795 – December 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 355–363.] [Last Accessed: 12 Feb 2018]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “George Hammond, British Minister Plenipotentiary to the U.S. 1791-1795,” courtesy of Wikipedia


1.27 – Source Notes



  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 31 January 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0075. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 154–155.] [Last Accessed: 25 Jan 2018]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Cushman, Clare, ed. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1995.
  • Frary, Ihna Thayer. They Built the Capitol. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1969.
  • Hall, Kermit L, ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 750-751.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. ““Remarks on the Treaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation lately made between the United States and Great Britain, [9–11 July 1795],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0281. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 404–454.]
  • Ireland, Robert M. “Rutledge, John.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 750-751.
  • Jay, John. “To George Washington, 29 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0208. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, p. 272.] [Last Accessed: 18 Jan 2018]
  • Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1993.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 31 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0323. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 481–483.] [Last Accessed: 6 Feb 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 7 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0231. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 297–299.] [Last Accessed: 25 Jan 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 12 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0247. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 312–326.] [Last Accessed: 25 Jan 2018]
  • Rutledge, John. “To George Washington, 12 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 213–214.] [Last Accessed: 25 Jan 2018]
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
  • Washington, George. “To the Commissioners for the District of Columbia, 3 March 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0192. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, p. 249.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander White, 17 May 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0115. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 157–159.] [Last Accessed: 17 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 3 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0217. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 282–283.] [Last Accessed: 23 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 14 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0294. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 466–467.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Timothy Pickering, 27 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0299. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 432–433.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Boston Selectmen, 28 July 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0305. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 441–443.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jan 2018]
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To George Washington, 30 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 276–277.] [Last Accessed: 18 Jan 2018]

Featured Image: “Andrew Ellicott’s plan for Washington, D.C., 1792,” courtesy of Wikipedia


1.27 – The Light of Burning Effigies



Year(s) Discussed: 1789-1799

While the construction of the nation’s new capital proceeds, the public battle against the Jay Treaty begins in earnest upon its publication by Benjamin Franklin Bache. Demonstrations and meetings go on up and down the Eastern seaboard, and even Alexander Hamilton has difficulty determining how to respond. Meanwhile, Washington has to fill John Jay’s position as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and deal with the last remaining member of his first Cabinet now looking to find a way out of his post. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: Burning of Stamp Act [c.1903], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.26 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Sean Munger of the Second Decade podcast for providing the intro quote!

  • Allen, W B; and Seth Ames, eds. Works of Fisher Ames: Volume II. Indianapolis, IN: LibertyClassics, 1983 [1854].
  • Annals of Congress. 4th Congress, Special Session. 853-868. https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwac.html [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2018]
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1962 [1923].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Ferling, John. The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon. New York, Berlin, and London: Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, 11 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0253. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 370–373.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2018]
  • Jay, John. “To Alexander Hamilton, 19 November 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 390–391.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Washington, 14 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0070. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 74–75.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Edmund Randolph, 7 September 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0109. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, p. 148.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Thomas Mann Randolph, 11 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0340. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 434–435.] [Last Accessed: 1 Jan 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Mann Page, 30 August 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0347. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 440–441.] [Last Accessed: 1 Jan 2018]
  • Johnston, Henry P. The Correspondence and Public Letters of John Jay, Volume IV: 1794-1826. New York and London: G P Putnam’s Sons, [1890].
  • Lee, Henry. “To George Washington, 17 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0391. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 572–573.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756-1805. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 4 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0306. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 405–409.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 15 February 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0383. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 473–475.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jan 2018]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 11 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0399. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 487–488.] [Last Accessed: 9 Jan 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McDonald, Forrest. The Presidency of George Washington. Lawrence, KS; Manhattan, KS; and Wichita, KS: The University Press of Kansas, 1974 [1974].
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 2 September 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0268. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 354–357.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To Thomas Jefferson, 28 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0103. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 117–119.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 25 June 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-18-02-0198. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 18, 1 April–30 September 1795, ed. William M. Ferraro, David R. Hoth and Jennifer E. Stertzer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015, pp. 258–260.] [Last Accessed: 13 Jan 2018]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Lee, 26 August 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0418. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, pp. 600–605.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Jay, 18 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0200. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 286–289.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To William Pearce, 8 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0424. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 632–634.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Charles Carter of Ludlow, 10 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0430. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 643–644.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To James Ross, 14 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0440. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 653–654.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Thomas Jefferson, 15 March 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0441. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 654–657.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jan 2018]

Featured Image: “Thomas Pinckney” by W C Armstrong, courtesy of Wikipedia


Be Washington(‘s Voice)!



In honor of Mount Vernon opening its Be Washington interactive experience today, I decided to hold a little contest and bring a fresh voice onto the podcast. I am seeking someone to read and record the intro quote for episode 1.27, set to launch in early March. The quote is from President Washington himself and appears in full below. If you are interested, please record yourself reading the following quote and send it (preferably in MP3 or WAV format, but I can try [though can’t guarantee] to work with other audio formats) via email to presidenciespodcast@gmail.com by Monday, February 26th. I will choose from the entries submitted and recognize the provider of the audio entry selected on the episode.

Without further ado, the legalities (seriously, what legitimate contest doesn’t have legalities?): By submitting an entry, you are certifying that the audio entry submitted is of you (I’m not sure how you would trick someone into reading this quote without their knowledge, but I never say never) and that you are agreeing to my using this audio for the purposes of this podcast including possible promotion. There is no compensation, monetary or otherwise, for providing this audio entry, just an acknowledgement on the episode in question as well as the eternal gratitude of a history geek who set off on a wild endeavor to cover presidential history from the very beginning a year and change ago.

I think that about covers it! Thus, on with the quote:

“This will be handed to you by Doctor Thornton of this City, who goes forward to lay before you a plan which he has prepared for the Capitol proposed to be built in the federal City.

Grandeur, Simplicity and Convenience appear to be so well combined in this plan of Doctor Thornton’s, that I have no doubt of its meeting with that approbation from you, which I have given it upon an attentive inspection, and which it has received from all those who have seen it and are considered as judges of such things.

How far the expense of such a building, as is exhibited by the plan, will comport with the funds of the City, you will be the best judges, after having made an estimate of the quantity of materials and labour to be employed in executing it. And to obviate objections that may be raised on this head, it should be considered, that the external of the building will be the only immediate expense to be incurred. The internal work—and many of the ornamental parts without, may be finished gradually, as the means will permit, and still the whole be completed within the time contemplated by law for the use of the building.”

This quote is from Washington’s letter to the Commissioners for the District of Columbia of March 3rd, 1793. Thanks so much to all who participate, and may your days be filled with history!

Image Credit: George Washington by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1795-1796, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.25 – Source Info



Special thanks to Thomas Daly of the American Biography podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

For more details on the French and Haitian Revolutions, check out the Revolutions podcast which covers both in great detail.

  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Allgor, Catherine. A Perfect Union: Dolley Madison and the Creation of the American Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 2006.
  • Blackburn, Robin. “Haiti, Slavery, and the Age of the Democratic Revolution.” William and Mary Quarterly. 3rd Series, 63:4 (October 2006) 643-674.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.
  • Fewster, Joseph M. “’Tarnished Glory’: The Aftermath of British Victories in the West Indies in 1794.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History. 21:1 (1993) 75-104.
  • Floyd, Christopher J. “Trans-Oconee Republic.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. 25 September 2014. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/history-archaeology/trans-oconee-republic [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Gillikin, Margaret Wilson. Sanit Dominguan Refugees in Charleston, South Carolina, 1791-1822: Assimilation and Accommodation in a Slave Society. Thesis. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. 2014.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 1 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0392. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, p. 413.] [Last Accessed: 10 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Angelica Church, 8 December 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-17-02-0407. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 17, August 1794 – December 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, pp. 428–429.] [Last Accessed: 10 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander, “Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit, [16 January 1795],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0052-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 56–129.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 25 February 179[5],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-18-02-0174. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 18, January 1795 – July 1795, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973, pp. 283–284.] [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Hobson, Charles F. “Chisholm v. Georgia.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 144.
  • Jenkins, H J K. “Franco-British Disagreement Regarding American Commerce in the Eastern Caribbean, 1793-1798.” Revue Française d’Histoire d’Outre-Mer. 272 (1986) 257-266.
  • Kaplan, Lawrence S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2002.
  • Kokomoor, Kevin. “Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic.” The Journal of Southern History. 81:4 (Nov 2015) 803-842.
  • Lancaster, Bruce. From Lexington to Liberty: The Story of the American Revolution. Lewis Gannett, ed. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1955.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. http://presidencies.blubrry.com. 2017.
  • Moitt, Bernard. “Slave Resistance in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 1791-1848.” The Journal of Caribbean History. 25:1 (1 Jan 1991) 136.
  • Moitt, Bernard. “Book Review: A Colony of Citizens.” Southern Quarterly. 44:3 (Spring 2007) 209-212.
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Orth, John V. “Eleventh Amendment.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p.250-251.
  • Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth. “To George Washington, 24 February 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 273–275.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Roberts, Cokie. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.
  • “Santo Domingan Refugees, [10 January] 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0117. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 177–179.] [Last Accessed: 18 Dec 2017]
  • Sublette, Ned, and Constance Sublette. The American Slave Coast: A History of the Slave-Breeding Industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2016.
  • Washington, George. “Memorandum on General Officers, 9 March 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified March 30, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-10-02-0040. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 10, 1 March 1792 – 15 August 1792, ed. Robert F. Haggard and Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 74–79.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 22 January 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-15-02-0084. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 15, 1 January–30 April 1794, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009, pp. 103–105.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, 29 May 1794,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-16-02-0128. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 16, 1 May–30 September 1794, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011, p. 154.] [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation 6—Day of Public Thanksgiving,” January 1, 1795. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65500. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Edmund Pendleton, 22 January 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-17-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 17, 1 October 1794–31 March 1795, ed. David R. Hoth and Carol S. Ebel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013, pp. 424–428.] [Last Accessed: 30 Dec 2017]
  • White, Ashli. Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
  • Winik, Jay. The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008 [2007].
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “Vue de l’incendie de la ville du Cap Français, 21 juin 1793” by Jean-Baptiste Chapuy and J L Boquet, courtesy of Wikipedia


1.24 – Source Notes



Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche

Map of Georgia showing precipitation and major rivers, courtesy of Wikipedia
Georgia River Basins, courtesy of Wikipedia
Map of the US following Kentucky’s statehood on June 1st, 1792, courtesy of user Golbez and Wikipedia
  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Davis, Edwin Adams. Louisiana The Pelican State. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961 [1959].
  • Davis, Harold E. The Fledgling Province: Social and Cultural Life in Colonial Georgia, 1733-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1976.
  • Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. “The 1795 Slave Conspiracy in Point Coupée: Impact of the French Revolution.” Proceedings of the Meeting of the French Colonial Historical Society. 15 (1992) 130-141.
  • Holmes, Jack D L. “The Abortive Slave Revolt at Pointe Coupée, Louisiana, 1795.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association. 11:4 (Autumn 1970) 341-362.
  • Knox, Henry. “Enclosure, 15 June 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-02-02-0357-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 2, 1 April 1789 – 15 June 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987, pp. 490–495.] [Last Accessed: 26 Nov 2017]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 7 July 1789,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-03-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 3, 15 June 1789–5 September 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 134–141.] [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2017]
  • Knox, Henry. “Enclosure: Report, 17 January 1792,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified November 26, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-09-02-0273-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 9, 23 September 1791 – 29 February 1792, ed. Mark A. Mastromarino. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 449–452.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2017]
  • Kokomoor, Kevin. “Creeks, Federalists, and the Idea of Coexistence in the Early Republic.” The Journal of Southern History. 81:4 (Nov 2015) 803-842.
  • Levy, Andrew. The First Emancipator: Slavery, Religion, and the Quiet Revolution of Robert Carter. New York: Random House, 2007 [2005].
  • Minnesota Legal History Project. “Ordinance of 1790, Also Known as the Southwest Ordinance.” Minnesota Legal History Project. 28 Jun 2011. http://www.minnesotalegalhistoryproject.org/assets/The%20Southwest%20Ordinance.pdf [Last Accessed: 28 Nov 2017]
  • Washington, George. “Proclamation—Warning Aginst Violation of Treaties Between the United States and the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chicksaw Indians,” August 26, 1790. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65566. [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2017]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: Unofficial flag of the state of Georgia pre-1879, courtesy of user RoyFocker 12 and Wikipedia


36.005 – Pictures



Atlanta Fire Department Station No. 6

Dr. King’s Birthplace

The display on Dr. King’s life

The display on the life of Coretta Scott King

The suitcase and belongings that Dr. King carried with him to Memphis, TN in April 1968.

A painting of Gandhi

The King tomb at the MLK NHS

The historic Ebenezer Baptist Church

The interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church