Category Archives: 01 – George Washington

The episodes related to the presidency of George Washington

1.045 – A Proclamation of Thanksgiving



Year(s) Discussed: 1619, 1621, 1789

To mark the upcoming US holiday of Thanksgiving, I wanted to release this special episode to provide a few thoughts on the holiday and its history and legacy as well as share with you President Washington’s proclamation issued on October 3rd, 1789 calling for the first day of national Thanksgiving under the constitutional government. The text can be found in the cited link below.

Music: Gustav Holst’s Movement II of “The Planets,” Venus, the Bringer of Peace


1.205 – Randolph



Edmund Randolph, courtesy of Wikipedia

Year(s) Discussed: 1753-1789

Though well known in his own day, Thomas Jefferson’s successor at the State Department is little known to modern audiences. Thus, I present this special episode in order to help you understand our second Secretary of State. His name has been brought up in the podcast previously as he was the first Attorney General, but there are a few key points that you’ll want to pay attention to about this Virginian’s story as they might just come to play in the not too distant future.

Audio editing for this episode by Andrew Pfannkuche.

The source used for this episode was, to date, the only biography of Randolph that I’ve been able to find:

  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.

1.20 – Go West, Young Men



William Bradford by William E Winner [c. 1872], courtesy of the US Department of Justice
Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1794

Washington and his administration adjusts to the shake-up following Jefferson’s departure from the Cabinet. Meanwhile, attention is turned west due to General Wayne making steps to take his Legion of the United States into action as an attempt at negotiation with native forces fails in part because of British interference. The federal government must also decide how to approach an increased uproar coming from western Pennsylvania over the whiskey excise tax. Though Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton has to devote a good portion of his time in the first part of 1794 to defending his record, this doesn’t stop him from meddling in affairs with other parts of the government. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.19 – Rebellion



William Findley by Rembrandt Peale [c. 1805], courtesy of Wikipedia
Year(s) Discussed: 1791-1794

As Washington sets wheels in motion for some rather radical changes to his personal way of life, others at home and abroad start working towards some changes of their own. In western Pennsylvania, small-scale distillers and farmers begin to organize against a new federal tax that would impact them more detrimentally than it would larger operations. In France, as the new French Republic faces food shortages and military setbacks, crowds start agitating for new, more effective leadership. Back in Philadelphia, Secretary of State Jefferson begins packing his bags and wrapping up his work as he counts down to the day set for his departure from the Washington administration. The old status quo seems forever gone as the year 1794 comes roaring in like a lion. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.18 – Pestilence



The Arch Street Wharf by William Birch [c. 1800] (courtesy of Wikipedia)
Year(s) Discussed: 1786-1793

Washington, his household, and his administration struggle to deal with an epidemic of yellow fever as it makes its way through the city of Philadelphia, indiscriminately infecting people from all walks of life including a resident at the President’s House. In addition to the loss of life, the epidemic brings up questions about how best to utilize medical knowledge to the public good, the role of the press, the relationship of individuals to their environment, and the ability and role of the government in a crisis management situation. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.


1.17 – Source Notes



The National Gazette (14 Nov 1791), courtesy of Wikipedia

Audio editing for this episode done by Andrew Pfannkuche.

For more information on John Marshall, as referenced in the episode, check out the American Biography podcast.

  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1962.
  • “Cabinet Meeting. Proposed Rules Governing Belligerents, [3 August 1793],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-15-02-0134. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 15, June 1793 – January 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, pp. 168–169.] [Last Accessed: 27 Aug 2017]
  • “Cabinet Meetings. Proposals Concerning the Conduct of the French Minister, [1–23 August 1793],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-15-02-0125. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 15, June 1793 – January 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, pp. 157–158.] [Last Accessed: 27 Aug 2017]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • “Enclosure Questions for the Supreme Court, 18 July 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-13-02-0164-0002. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 13, 1 June–31 August 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, pp. 243–247.] [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2017]
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Edmond Charles Genet and George Hammond, 12 July 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-26-02-0433. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 26, 11 May–31 August 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. 487–488.] [Last Accessed: 22 Aug 2017]
  • Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1993.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 5 August 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-13-02-0239. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 13, 1 June–31 August 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, pp. 355–356.] [Last Accessed: 27 Aug 2017]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Rappleye, Charles. Robert Morris: Financier of the American Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010.
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Shalhope, Robert E. John Taylor of Caroline: Pastoral Republican. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1980.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Supreme Court Justices. “To George Washington, 20 July 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-13-02-0173. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 13, 1 June–31 August 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, pp. 256–257.] [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2017]
  • Supreme Court Justices. ““To George Washington, 8 August 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-13-02-0263. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 13, 1 June–31 August 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, pp. 392–393.] [Last Accessed: 24 Aug 2017]
  • Washington, George. “To Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph, [3 August 1793],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-15-02-0139. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 15, June 1793 – January 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, p. 175.] [Last Accessed: 27 Aug 2017]

1.16 – Source Notes



“Residence of Washington in High Street, Philada.” by William L Breton [c. 1828-1830], courtesy of Wikipedia
Audio editing for this episode done by Andrew Pfannkuche.

  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Forman, Samuel E. The Political Activities of Philip Freneau. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1902.
  • Genet, Edmund Charles. “To Thomas Jefferson, 22 June 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-26-02-0312. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 26, 11 May–31 August 1793, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995, pp. 339–342.] [Last Accessed: 19 Aug 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. ““Memorandum, 15 May 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0461. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 577–584.] [Last Accessed: 16 Aug 2017]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 21 June 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-15-02-0012. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 15, June 1793 – January 1794, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969, p. 13.] [Last Accessed: 19 Aug 2017]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Memorandum, 16 May 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0467. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 592–595.] [Last Accessed: 16 Aug 2017]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 9 June 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-15-02-0027. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 15, 24 March 1793 – 20 April 1795, ed. Thomas A. Mason, Robert A. Rutland, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1985, pp. 26–28.] [Last Accessed: 19 Aug 2017]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Washington, 31 July 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-13-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 13, 1 June–31 August 1793, Christine Sternberg Patrick. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007, pp. 311–312.] [Last Accessed: 10 Aug 2017]
  • “Jurisdiction: Admirality and Maritime.” Federal Judicial Center. https://www.fjc.gov/history/courts/jurisdiction-admiralty-and-maritime. [Last Accessed: 16 Aug 2017]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Newton, Thomas Jr; and William Lindsay. ““To George, 5 May 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0423. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 521–522.] [Last Accessed: 16 Aug 2017]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “Memorandum, 17 May 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0474. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 602–605.] [Last Accessed: 16 Aug 2017]
  • Randolph, Edmund. “To George Washington, 18 May 1793,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 29, 2017, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-12-02-0482. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 12, 16 January 1793 – 31 May 1793, ed. Christine Sternberg Patrick and John C. Pinheiro. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 608–610.] [Last Accessed: 17 Aug 2017]
  • Reardon, John J. Edmund Randolph: A Biography. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co, 1974.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.