All posts by presidencies

2.095 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Shelly, Faye, Karen, and Alex for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

To find out more about Feather’s work and to check out her history blog, go to her website at http://www.featherfoster.com

  • Adams, Abigail, and John Adams. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 12 January 1767,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-01-02-0046. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 1, December 1761 – May 1776, ed. Lyman H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 57–59.] [Last Accessed: 26 Oct 2018]
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York and London: Free Press, 2009.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com
  • Roberts, Cokie. Founding Mothers: The Women Who Raised Our Nation. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “Abigail Adams” by Benjamin Blyth [c. 1766], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.095 – Abigail Adams



Year(s) Discussed: 1744-1818

This special episode is all about the life and times of Abigail Smith Adams, the learned woman from Weymouth who became the second First Lady of the United States. Returning to the show to share her insight on Abigail is Presidential and First Lady historian Feather Schwartz Foster. Join us as we explore her fascinating life and discuss what legacy she leaves as First Lady and a historical figure in her own right. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Abigail Adams” by Gilbert Stuart (c. 1810-1815), courtesy of Wikipedia

Transition Music: “String Concerto in G Major [RV 532]”, Antonio Vivaldi, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.09 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To George Washington, 22 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0270. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 351–352.] [Last Accessed: 9 Nov 2018]
  • Arana, Marie. Bolivar: The Epic Life of the Man Who Liberated South America. London: Phoenix, 2014 [2013].
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Dubois, Laurent. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution & Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Rufus King, [1 May 1798],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0250. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 21, April 1797 – July 1798, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 454–457.] [Last Accessed: 28 Oct 2018]
  • King, Rufus. “To Alexander Hamilton, [31 July 1798],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0025. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 44–46.] [Last Accessed: 28 Oct 2018]
  • King, Rufus. “To Alexander Hamilton, 21 January 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-22-02-0244. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 22, July 1798 – March 1799, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1975, pp. 425–427.] [Last Accessed: 27 Oct 2018]
  • Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism 1795-1800. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Paullin, Charles Oscar. Paullin’s History of Naval Administration, 1775-1911. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1968.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Pickering, Timothy. “To George Washington, 14 April 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0163. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 237–238.] [Last Accessed: 30 Oct 2018]
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Washington, George. “To John Adams, 17 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0257. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, p. 334.] [Last Accessed: 9 Nov 2018]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “Henrietta Liston” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1800], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.09 – All Around and Away They Go



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1799

As the events of the Haitian Revolution start to involve the US and the Army works to secure control of the Mississippi Territory from the Spanish, Adams and the Federalists work to determine a response to the XYZ Affair. However, as their power begins to consolidate, some in the party plot ways to use the situation to their advantage. Oh, and Adams goes to see a play! Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Toussaint Louverture and General Thomas Maitland,” unknown artist [c. 1790s?], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.08 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Ty Bannerman and Courtney Fitzgerald of the Anytown, USA podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Cotton Tufts, 6 February 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0208. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 382–383.] [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 14 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0236. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 446–448.] [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 4 April 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0254. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 484–486.] [Last Accessed: 18 Oct 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Enclosure: To James McHenry, Timothy Pickering, Oliver Wolcott, Junior, and Charles Lee, 24 January 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0198-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 21, April 1797 – July 1798, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 339–341.] [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To United States Congress, 5 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2362. [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To United States Congress, 19 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2382. [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To United States Congress, 3 April 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2396. [Last Accessed: 18 Oct 2018]
  • Annals of Congress. 5th Congress, 2nd Session. 625-1216. https://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwac.html. [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • “Griswold, Roger (1762-1812).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=G000488. [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Timothy Pickering, 17 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0217. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 21, April 1797 – July 1798, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 364–367.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Angelica Church, 11 January 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-30-02-0011. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 30, 1 January 1798 – 31 January 1799, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 23–24.] [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 21 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-17-02-0067. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 17, 31 March 1797–3 March 1801 and supplement 22 January 1778–9 August 1795, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, pp. 99–100.] [Last Accessed: 17 Oct 2018]
  • “Lyon, Matthew (1749-1822).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000545. [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821.New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “The Battle of Camperdown” by Thomas Whitcombe [c. 1798], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.08 – Have At Thee! The Response to XYZ



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1798

As the Adams administration learns of the XYZ Affair and the President works to determine his next course of action, partisan bickering devolves to a fight on the floor of the House of Representatives while back in Paris, divisions start to form between the special envoys as Talleyrand increases his pressure on one of their number. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Congressional Pugilists” by an unknown artist [15 Feb 1798], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.07 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Noah Tetzner of the History of Vikings Podcast for providing this episode’s intro quote!

  • Adams, John. “To Heads of Department, 13 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-2375. [Last Accessed: 30 Sep 2018]
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Landry, Jerry. “The Presidencies of the United States.” 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: Engraving of the Coup of 18 Fructidor by Berthault, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.07 – One Hand Washes the Other: The XYZ Affair



Year(s) Discussed: 1797-1798

The three commissioners sent by Adams arrive in France to begin negotiations but find themselves beset with new characters and new circumstances following French victories in the field and a coup in the government. One figure in particular stands between the envoys and peace, and he’ll gladly get out of the way…if, of course, the Americans are willing to pay. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Périgord” by François Gérard [c. 1808], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.06 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Sarah Tanksalvala from the American History Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 16 May 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0075. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 116–118.] [Last Accessed: 1 Sep 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 3 May 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-1957. [Last Accessed: 8 Sep 2018]
  • Adams, John. “First Annual Address to Congress,” November 22, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29439. [Last Accessed: 15 Sep 2018]
  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chew, Richard S. “Certain Victims of an International Contagion: The Panic of 1797 and the Hard Times of the Late 1790s in Baltimore.” Journal of the Early Republic. 25:4 [Winter 2005] 565-613.
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Craughwell, Thomas J. Failures of the Presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and the War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and War in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Quayside Publishing Group, 2008.
  • Curott, Nicholas A; and Tyler A Watts. “What Caused the Recession of 1797?” Studies in Applied Economics. 48 [February 2016] i-31.
  • “Dana, Francis.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=D000021 [Last Accessed: 6 Sep 2018]
  • Durham, Walter T. Before Tennessee: The Southwest Territory 1790-1796. Piney Flats, TN: Rocky Mount Historical Association, 1990.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2001 [1993].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Golinski, Jan. “Debating the Atmospheric Constitution: Yellow Fever and the American Climate.” Eighteenth-Century Studies. 49:2 [2016] 149-165.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • Paul, Joel Richard. Without Precedent: Chief Justice John Marshall and His Times. New York: Riverhead Books, 2018.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821.New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • Walsh, Kenneth T. From Mount Vernon to Crawford: A History of the Presidents and Their Retreats. New York: Hyperion, 2005.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “William Blount” by Washington Bogart Cooper [c. 1828-1884], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.06 – Scandals and Observations



Year(s) Discussed: 1792-1797

Adams is joined in Philadelphia by his wife Abigail as he tries to balance war and peace with the first of the original six frigates of the US Navy being launched around the time that he appoints peace commissioners to France. Meanwhile, the US Senate is rocked by a scandal involving one of its leaders while news of Hamilton’s extramarital affair becomes public. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Alexander Hamilton” [possibly by John Trumbull, c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia