All posts by presidencies

2.03 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Dan McClellan for providing the English version of the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 1 January 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0247. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 480–481.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 9 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0290. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 553–554.] [Last Accessed: 20 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 13 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-1855. [Last Accessed: 20 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 3 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0003. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 7–8.] [Last Accessed: 20 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Inaugural Address,” March 4, 1797. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25802. [Last Accessed: 24 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 22 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-12-02-0025. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 12, March 1797 – April 1798, ed. Sara Martin, C. James Taylor, Neal E. Millikan, Amanda A. Mathews, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Gregg L. Lint, and Sara Georgini. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015, pp. 44–45.] [Last Accessed: 30 Jul 2018]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and American Diplomacy 1795-1800. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 17 December 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-16-02-0296. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16, 27 April 1795 – 27 March 1797, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Thomas A. Mason, and Jeanne K. Sisson. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989, pp. 431–432.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. “Reminiscences of the Visit to Philadelphia, July 2017.”
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The First Presidential Contest: 1796 and the Founding of American Democracy. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2013.
  • Rappleye, Charles. Robert Morris: Financier of the American Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010.
  • Robbins, Karen E. James McHenry: Forgotten Federalist. Athens, GA and London: University of Georgia Press, 2013.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Turner, Frederick J, ed. “Correspondence of the French Minister to the United States, 1791-1797.” Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1903: Volume II. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1904.
  • Washington, George. “To John Adams, 20 February 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00316. [Last Accessed: 30 Jul 2018]
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 31 March 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-20-02-0359. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 20, January 1796 – March 1797, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 569–574.] [Last Accessed: 24 Jul 2018]

Featured Image: The President’s House in Philadelphia circa 2017, courtesy of me


2.03 – The New Sheriff in Town



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1797

The election of 1796 results in John Adams becoming the nation’s second chief executive, but he quickly finds more questions than answers awaiting him on the path to taking the oath of office. Adams is immediately faced with the need to make decisions about who to keep from the previous administration, what if any policy changes to make, and even where he and his family will live. It’s a transition unlike any other in American history to that point, and with various pressing issues waiting on the desk, the honeymoon for the new President promised to be short-lived. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Congress Hall,” unknown artist, courtesy of the US Senate Historical Office


1.36 – Source Notes



  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 25 March 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-11-02-0119. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 11, July 1795 – February 1797, ed. Margaret A. Hogan, C. James Taylor, Sara Martin, Neal E. Millikan, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, and Gregg L. Lint. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013, pp. 228–230.] [Last Accessed: 17 Apr 2018]
  • Bartoloni-Tuazon, Kathleen. For Fear of an Elective King: George Washington and the Presidential Title Controversy of 1789. Ithaca, NY and London: Cornell University Press, 2014.
  • Calloway, Colin G. The Indian World of George Washington: The First President, the First Americans, and the Birth of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Lossing, Benson, J, ed. The Diary of George Washington, From 1789 to 1791. New York: Charles B Richardson & Co, 1860.
  • Morgan, Lewis H. League of the Ho-De’-No-Sau-Nee or Iroquois. Herbert M Lloyd, ed. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co, 1922 [1851].
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 21 July 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 201–204.] [Last Accessed: 4 Aug 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Podcasts mentioned in the episode:

Featured Image: Statue of George Washington in front of Federal Hall, New York City, NY courtesy of me


1.36 – Washington Q&A



I asked for your questions, and you sent in some great ones! As a part of the transition into a new presidency, we send George Washington off by addressing some lingering issues about his life and tenure including whether he thought of the Federalists as a political party, whether Hamilton would have become president if not for his affair with Maria Reynolds, did Washington really want to be called “His Excellency,” and what was up with the president tallying how many women he saw during his Southern tour. The answers to these questions and more can be found in this special episode of Presidencies! Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: Statue of George Washington at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History, courtesy of Matthew G Bisanz and Wikipedia


2.02 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To John Adams, 7 May 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-01-02-0259. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 1, December 1761 – May 1776, ed. Lyman H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 401–403.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To James Lovell, 15 December 1777,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-02-02-0298. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 2, June 1776 – March 1778, ed. L. H. Butterfield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963, pp. 370–372.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 25 June 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0017. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp. 99–100.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Josiah Quincy Jr., 18 September 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0046. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, p. 168.] [Last Accessed: 17 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 7 October 1775,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0096. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 188–191.] [Last Accessed: 24 Jun 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775 [1],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0108. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 212–214.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775 [2],” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0109. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 214–215.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 19 October 1775,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-03-02-0110. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 3, May 1775 – January 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 215–216.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To James Warren, 15 May 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0079. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, February–August 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 186–187.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To John Lowell, 12 June 1776,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-04-02-0113. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 4, February–August 1776, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979, pp. 249–250.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jul 1776]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Adams, 3 July 1776.” Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. https://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/archive/doc?id=L17760703jasecond. [Last Accessed: 16 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “Diary Entry, 26 April 1779.” Adams Papers Digital Edition. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/publications/adams-papers/view?id=ADMS-01-02-02-0009-0003-0010. [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Robert R. Livingston, 31 October 1782,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-14-02-0002. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 14, October 1782–May 1783, ed. Gregg L. Lint, C. James Taylor, Hobson Woodward, Margaret A. Hogan, Mary T. Claffey, Sara B. Sikes, and Judith S. Graham. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008, pp. 2–6.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 2 May 1785,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-17-02-0040. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 17, April–November 1785, ed. Gregg L. Lint, C. James Taylor, Sara Georgini, Hobson Woodward, Sara B. Sikes, Amanda A. Mathews, and Sara Martin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014, pp. 75–82.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John. “To Cotton Tufts, 27 August 1787,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/04-08-02-0064. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Adams Family Correspondence, vol. 8, March 1787 – December 1789, ed. C. James Taylor, Margaret A. Hogan, Jessie May Rodrique, Gregg L. Lint, Hobson Woodward, and Mary T. Claffey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 149.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jul 2018]
  • Adams, John, and Abigail Adams. “To James Warren, 9 April 1774,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-02-02-0009. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 2, December 1773 – April 1775, ed. Robert J. Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977, pp. 82–84.] [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2018]
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Gelles, Edith B. Abigail & John: Portrait of a Marriage. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
  • Gerry, Elbridge. “To John Adams, 29 September 1779,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified June 13, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/06-08-02-0124. [Original source: The Adams Papers, Papers of John Adams, vol. 8, March 1779 – February 1780, ed. Gregg L. Lint, Robert J. Taylor, Richard Alan Reyerson, Celeste Walker, and Joanna M. Revelas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989, pp. 179–184.] [Last Accessed: 6 Jul 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the Virginian: Jefferson and His Time Volume One. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1948.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Rights of Man: Jefferson and His Time Volume Two. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co, 1951.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume I 1735-1784. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “John Adams,” John Trumbull [c. 1792/1793], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.02 – Adams Pre-Presidency Part Two



Year(s) Discussed: 1773-1797

As the Revolution against Great Britain kicks off, John Adams assumes office in the Continental Congress where he makes a name for himself with individuals from the various colonies before being sent to represent the United States in Europe. While dealing with family matters and tensions with new colleagues and contemporaries, Adams navigates through challenging diplomatic waters before finally landing in the Vice Presidency then being elected to succeed George Washington as chief executive. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “American Commissioners of the Preliminary Peace Agreement with Great Britain,” Benjamin West [c. 1783-1784], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.01 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex Slawson for providing the intro quote for this episode!

Featured Image: “Abigail Adams,” Benjamin Blyth [c. 1766], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.01 – Adams Pre-Presidency



Year(s) Discussed: 1638-1772

A new series starts here! From his beginnings on a farm in Braintree, Massachusetts, John Adams set off on a path of learning that would take him through Harvard College and into the practice of law. During his quest for fame and adequate fortune, he would wed his “Dearest Friend,” Abigail Smith, and start a family while getting swept up in larger movements that would change the British North American colonies and the world forever. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “John Adams,” Benjamin Blyth [c. 1766], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.35 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Michael Troy of the American Revolution Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To George Washington, 22 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0270. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 351–352.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Brady, Patricia. Martha Washington: An American Life. New York: Penguin Books, 2006 [2005].
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co, 1972 [1969].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To George Washington, 19 May 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-21-02-0258. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 21, April 1797 – July 1798, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, pp. 466–468.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 3 August 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-17-02-0023. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 17, 31 March 1797–3 March 1801 and supplement 22 January 1778–9 August 1795, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, pp. 33–37.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 29 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0374. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 469–472.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Knox, Henry. “To George Washington, 4 November 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0126. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 178.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Lafayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de. “To George Washington, 6 October 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0338. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 384–386.] [Last Accessed: 9 May 2018]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Langhorne, John. [Peter Carr] “To George Washington, 25 September 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0327. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 373–375.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • Nicholas, John. “To George Washington, 9 December 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0453. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 509–511.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Puls, Mark. Henry Knox: Visionary General of the American Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
  • Spalding, Paul S. Lafayette: Prisoner of State. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2010.
  • Trumbull, Jonathan, Jr. “To George Washington, 22 June 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0111. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 143–144.] [Last Accessed: 15 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Joseph Habersham, 8 August 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/99-01-02-00826. [Last Accessed: 9 May 2018]
  • Washington, George.”To Thomas Jefferson, 28 August 1796,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-29-02-0136. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 29, 1 March 1796 – 31 December 1797, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, p. 178.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “T o John Langhorne [Peter Carr], 15 October 1797,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-01-02-0364. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 1, 4 March 1797 – 30 December 1797, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, p. 409.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To John Nicholas, 8 March 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0112. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 127–129.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Henry Knox, 16 July 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0328. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 423–426.] [Last Accessed: 10 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Bushrod Washington, 12 August 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-02-02-0411. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 2, 2 January 1798 – 15 September 1798, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 514–515.] [Last Accessed: 11 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Richard Raynal Keene, 28 December 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-03-02-0201. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798 – 19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 291.] [Last Accessed: 16 May 2018]
  • Washington, George. “To Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 21 July 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, last modified April 12, 2018, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0165. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 201–204.] [Last Accessed: 15 May 2018]
  • Wiencek, Henry. An Imperfect God: George Washington, His Slaves, and the Creation of America. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003.

Featured Image: “A view on Mount Vernon with the Washington family on the terrace”, Benjamin Henry Latrobe [16 Jul 1796], courtesy of Wikipedia


1.35 – Washington Post-Presidency



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1799

Washington envisioned a relaxing retirement at Mount Vernon with his family after leaving the presidency in March 1797, but it was not to be. Between personal issues and a return to public service, the last couple of years of Washington’s life prior to his sudden demise would be filled with business and breaches of trust and friendship. Source information for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Life of George Washington: The Christian” lithograph by Claude Regnier, original painting by Junius Brutus Stearns [c. 1853], courtesy of Library of Congress