All posts by presidencies

S008 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Andrew Pfannkuche for this audio editing assistance and to Dave Broker of the Industrial Revolutions Podcast, Kenny Ryan of the [Abridged] Presidential Histories podcast, and my husband Alex for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Chernow, Ron. Grant. New York: Penguin Press, 2017.
  • CQ Press. Guide to U.S. Elections, Fifth Edition, Volume II. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2005.
  • Flick, Alexander Clarence. Samuel Jones Tilden: A Study in Political Sagacity. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1963 [1939].
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006 [2005].
  • Hancock, Almira R. Reminiscences of Winfield Scott Hancock. New York: Charles L Webster & Co, 1887.
  • Holt, Michael F. By One Vote: The Disputed Presidential Election of 1876. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2008.
  • Hoogenboom, Ari. Rutherford B. Hayes: Warrior & President. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995.
  • Jordan, David M. Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier’s Life. Bloomington, IN and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996 [1988].
  • McFeely, William S. Grant: A Biography. New York and London: WW Norton & Co, 1982 [1981].
  • McGuiness, Colleen, ed. American Leaders 1789-1994: A Biographical Summary. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1994.
  • McPherson, James M. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction, Third Edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001 [1982].
  • Morris, Roy, Jr. Fraud of the Century: Rutherford B. Hayes, Samuel Tilden, and the Stolen Election of 1876. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
  • Muzzey, David Saville. James G. Blaine: A Political Idol of Other Days. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1963 [1934].
  • Nevins, Allan. Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co, 1936.
  • Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. “Party Divisions of the House of Representatives, 1789 to Present.” United States House of Representatives. https://history.house.gov/Institution/Party-Divisions/Party-Divisions/. [Last Accessed: 24 Nov 2020]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. Grant. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Horace Greeley: Nineteenth-Century Crusader. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953.
  • Williams, T Harry, ed. Hayes: The Diary of a President, 1875-1881. New York: David McKay Co Inc, 1964.
  • Witcover, Jules. Party of the People: A History of the Democrats. New York: Random House, 2003.

Featured Image: “The Florida Case before the Electoral Commission” by Cornelia Adèle Strong Fassett, courtesy of Wikipedia


S008 – Transition Gone Wrong



Year(s) Discussed: 1875-1877

Though the US takes pride in the regular practice of peaceful transitions of power from one presidency to the next, sometimes the transition is not quite so peaceful, especially when the results are in dispute. Such was the case in the aftermath of the presidential election of 1876 where, for months, allegations flew back and forth, political leaders across the nation exerted their influence in favor of their chosen candidate, members of both parties prepared for armed confrontation, and no one could predict whether Samuel J Tilden or Rutherford B Hayes would end up being the nineteenth president of the United States. Source notes for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Images: “Rutherford B Hayes” [c. 1865-1880], courtesy of Wikipedia and “Samuel Jones Tilden” [c. 1860-1886], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.25 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Howard and Jess from Plodding Through the Presidents for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • “Certificate of Sale and Manumission of John Freeman, 23 July 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-0131. [Last Accessed: 7 Nov 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Fourth Annual Message, 8 November 1804,” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202713. [Last Accessed: 10 Nov 2020]
  • Johnson, David. John Randolph of Roanoke. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2012.
  • Johnson, Herbert A. The Chief Justiceship of John Marshall, 1801-1835. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1997.
  • Kirk, Russell. John Randolph of Roanoke: A Study in American Politics, With Selected Speeches and Letters, Fourth Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 1997 [1951].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Matthews, Marty D. Forgotten Founder: The Life and Times of Charles Pinckney. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • Paul, Joel Richard. Without Precedent: Chief Justice John Marshall and His Times. New York: Riverhead Books, 2018.
  • Presser, Stephen B. “Chase, Samuel.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 137-139.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • “TUESDAY, MARCH 27, 1804, 4 o’clock, P. M.” Senate Journal. Library of Congress. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(sj003516)). [Last Accessed: 7 Nov 2020]

Featured Image: “Areas involved in the Yazoo-Georgia land scandal” [c. 1915], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.25 – What’s Next



Year(s) Discussed: 1801-1805

As James Monroe set off for his new special mission to Spain, a new congressional session began with Democratic-Republicans aiming to settle a long-standing issue as well as put their mark on the judiciary branch. However, they would find that their plans quickly went awry, and the events of early 1805 would have impacts on Jefferson’s second term and beyond. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “John Randolph” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1804-1805], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.24 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Theshira Pather of the Legendary Africa podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Armstrong, John, Jr. “To Thomas Jefferson, 2 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0419. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, p. 527.] [Last Accessed: 7 Nov 2020]
  • Buchanan, James. “Alfred Moore.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 56-60.
  • Chenicek, Jolynda Brock. Dereliction of Diplomacy: The American Consulates in Paris and Bordeaux during the Napoleonic Era, 1804-1815. Diss. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University, 2008. https://fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu%3A182067. [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2020]
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To Thomas Jefferson, 25 February 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0469. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 542–543.] [Last Accessed: 4 Oct 2020]
  • Crackel, Theodore J. Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801-1809. New York and London: New York University Press, 1987.
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • Dauer, Manning. “Election of 1804.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 159-169.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Moore, Alfred.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 560.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Gannon, Kevin M. “Escaping ‘Mr. Jefferson’s Plan of Destruction’: New England Federalists and the Idea of a Northern Confederacy, 1803-1804.” Journal of the Early Republic. 21:3 [Fall 2001] 413-443.
  • Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Hatfield, Joseph T. William Claiborne: Jeffersonian Centurion in the American Southwest. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 1976.
  • Historical Currency Converter (test version 1.0). http://www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html. [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2020)
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Monroe, 8 January 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0223. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 245–251.] [Last Accessed: 23 Sep 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Notes on Supreme Court Candidates, 17 February 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0431. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 497–498.] [Last Accessed: 20 Sep 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To the Senate, 22 March 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0064. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, pp. 71–72.] [Last Accessed: 21 Sep 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Armstrong of New York, 26 May 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0378. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, pp. 490–491.] [Last Accessed: 5 Nov 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Constantin François Chasseboeuf Volney, 8 February 1805,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-1123. [Last Accessed: 7 Nov 2020]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To Thomas Jefferson, 12 Mar 1803.” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-40-02-0037-0003. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 40, 4 March–10 July 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, pp. 44–48.] [Last Accessed: 5 Nov 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To Robert R. Livingston, 7 February 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0410. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 446–447.] [Last Accessed: 5 Nov 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • McGuiness, Colleen, ed. American Leaders 1789-1994: A Biographical Summary. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1994.
  • Pride, David T. “William Johnson.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 66-70.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821.New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
  • Skeen, C Edward. John Armstrong, Jr. 1758-1843: A Biography. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1981.
  • VanBurkleo, Sandra F. “William Johnson.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 449-450.
  • Washington, George. “Statement before delivering response to the first Newburgh Address | Saturday, March 15, 1783.” George Washington’s Mount Vernon. https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/quotes/article/gentlemen-you-will-permit-me-to-put-on-my-spectacles-for-i-have-grown-not-only-gray-but-almost-blind-in-the-service-of-my-country/. [Last Accessed: 5 Nov 2020]
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Images: “Major General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney” by James Earl [c. 1795-1796], courtesy of Wikipedia, and “Rufus King” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1818], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.24 – Truth and Consequences



Year(s) Discussed: 1803-1805

With a presidential election looming, the Jefferson administration had to consider how to wrap up the first term and transition to the second. For some, that meant moving into new positions. For others, retirement was in their future. As the campaign worked to rally the public, the decisions of 1804 made at home and abroad would have far-reaching consequences. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Images: “Thomas Jefferson” by Rembrandt Peale [c. 1800], courtesy of Wikipedia and “George Clinton” by Ezra Ames [c. 1814], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


S007 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Ben, Arjun, and Alex for providing the intro quotes for this episode! Please be sure to check out Wittenberg to Westphalia and Deep into History!

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon: The Education of a Politician, 1913-1962. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.
  • Blum, John Morton. Years of Discord: American Politics and Society, 1961-1974. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 1992 [1991].
  • Brands, H W. Reagan: The Life. New York: Doubleday, 2015.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “1968 Pandemic (HeN2 virus).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 Jan 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/1968-pandemic.html. [Last Accessed: 5 Sep 2020]
  • Christopher, Warren. Chances of a Lifetime. New York: Scribner, 2001.
  • Clifford, Clark, with Richard Holbrooke. Counsel to the President: A Memoir. New York: Random House, 1991.
  • Dallek, Robert. Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961-1973. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Diemer, Tom; Lee Leonard; and Richard G Zimmerman. James A. Rhodes: Ohio Colossus. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 2014.
  • Foster, Patrick. George Romney: An American Life. Grapevine, TX: Waldorf Publishing, 2017.
  • Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Herring, George C. America’s Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975: Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996 [1979].
  • Humphrey, Hubert H, Jr. “14 July 1948, Speech to the Democratic National Convention.” Minnesota Historical Society. http://www2.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00442/pdfa/00442-00187.pdf. [Last Accessed: 30 Jun 2020]
  • Humphrey, Hubert H, Jr. “Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago, 29 Aug 1968.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/216659. [Last Accessed: 25 Sep 2020]
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. “Remarks at the University of Michigan, 22 May 1964.”Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/239689. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2020]
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. “Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, 10 January 1967.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/238176. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2020]
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. “Special Message to the Congress: The State of the Budget and the Economy, 3 August 1967.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/238045. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2020]
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. “The President’s Address to the Nation Announcing Steps To Limit the War in Vietnam and Reporting His Decision Not To Seek Reelection, 31 March 1968.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/238065. [Last Accessed: 21 Jul 2020]
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. “Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, 14 January 1969.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/236130. [Last Accessed: 25 Sep 2020]
  • Johnson, Lyndon B. The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency 1963-1969. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
  • “Kennedy, Robert Francis (1925-1968).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=K000114. [Last Accessed: 5 Jun 2020]
  • Kilgore, Kathleen. John Volpe: The Life of an Immigrant’s Son. Dublin, NH: Yankee Books, 1987.
  • Kirby, Alec; David G Dalin; and John F Rothmann. Harold E Stassen: The Life and Perennial Candidacy of the Progressive Republican. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Company, 2013.
  • Kramer, Michael, & Sam Roberts. “’I Never Wanted To Be Vice-President of Anything!’ An Investigative Biography of Nelson Rockefeller. New York: Basic Books, 1976.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lesher, Stephan. George Wallace: American Populist. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1994 [1993].
  • Lewis, David L. King: A Biography. Urbana, IL; Chicago; and London: University of Illinois Press, 1978 [1970].
  • “McCarthy, Eugene Joseph (1916-2005).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=M000311. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2020]
  • Nelson, Michael. Resilient America: Electing Nixon in 1968, Challenging Dissent, and Dividing Government. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2014.
  • Nevin, David. Muskie of Maine. New York: Random House, 1972.
  • Nixon, Richard M. “Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, 8 August 1968.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/256650. [Last Accessed: 25 Sep 2020]
  • Parmet, Herbert S. Richard Nixon and His America. New York: Konecky & Konecky, 1990.
  • “ROCKEFELLER, Nelson Aldrich (1908-1979).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=R000363. [Last Accessed: 23 Jun 2020]
  • Sandbrook, Dominic. Eugene McCarthy: The Rise and Fall of Postwar American Liberalism. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2004.
  • Schmitt, Edward R. President of the Other America: Robert Kennedy & the Politics of Poverty. Amherst, MA and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010.
  • Solberg, Carl. Hubert Humphrey: A Biography. New York and London: WW Norton & Co, 1984.
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • Thomas, Evan. Robert Kennedy: His Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002 [2000].
  • White, Theodore H. The Making of the President: 1964. New York: Atheneum, 1965.
  • White, Theodore H. The Making of the President: 1968. New York: Atheneum, 1969.
  • Witcover, Jules. Very Strange Bedfellows: The Short and Unhappy Marriage of Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew. New York: PublicAffairs, 2007.
  • Wright, Amy Nathan. Civil Rights “Unfinished Business”: Poverty, Race, and the 1968 Poor People’s Campaign. Diss, University of Texas at Austin. 2007.

Featured Image: “Vice President Hubert Humphrey, President Lyndon Johnson, and General Creighton Abrams in a Cabinet Room meeting” [27 Mar 1968], courtesy of Wikipedia


S007 – Unprecedented Part III: 1968



Year(s) Discussed: 1907-1968

In a year of domestic unrest, social strife, and uncertainty at home and abroad, the United States prepared for a presidential election in 1968. Little did they know that it would be a contest unlike any other. In the midst of a turbulent campaign, political norms were challenged, rivalries were intensified, and the only guarantee was that a new chapter in American history would emerge after all the votes were in. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Lyndon Johnson meets with Presidential candidate Richard Nixon at the White House” by Yoichi Okamoto [26 Jul 1968], courtesy of Wikipedia

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3.23 – Source Notes



Special thanks to James Early for providing the intro quote for this episode! Be sure to check out his work on the Presidential Fight Club, Key Battles of the Civil War, Key Battles of the Revolutionary War, and Key Battles of World War One series!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Alexander Hamilton, 18 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0203-0001. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 242–243.] [Last Accessed: 7 Sep 2020]
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Alexander Hamilton, 21 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0207. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 249–251.] [Last Accessed: 7 Sep 2020]
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Alexander Hamilton, 22 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0212. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 255–256.] [Last Accessed: 6 Aug 2020]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Crackel, Theodore J. Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801-1809. New York and London: New York University Press, 1987.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Aaron Burr, 20 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0205. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 247–249.] [Last Accessed: 7 Sep 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Mary Jefferson Eppes, 12 February 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-31-02-0313. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 31, 1 February 1799 – 31 May 1800, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 367–369.] [Last Accessed: 6 Aug 2020]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lester, Malcolm. Anthony Merry Redivivus: A Reappraisal of the British Minister to the United States, 1803-6. Charlottesvile, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1978.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 26 December 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 212–216.] [Last Accessed: 2 Sep 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 5 January 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0264. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 282–308.] [Last Accessed: 31 Aug 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 15 April 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-07-02-0062. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 7, 2 April–31 August 1804, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, and Jeanne Kerr Cross. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 51–61.] [Last Accessed: 2 Sep 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President Second Term, 1805-1809: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Five. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1974.
  • Sedgwick, John. War of Two: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Duel That Stunned the Nation. New York: New American Library, 2016 [2015].

Featured Image: “Elizabeth Hamilton” by James Sharples [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.23 – One Man Left Standing



Year(s) Discussed: 1803-1804

While diplomatic disagreements occupied the attention of the Jefferson administration, Vice President Aaron Burr was occupied with a dispute of a more personal matter in the aftermath of his failed gubernatorial bid. Alexander Hamilton’s opposition to his campaign did not go unnoticed, and Burr was determined to have Hamilton answer for his words, one way or another. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton.” [c. 1901], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band