All posts by presidencies

S006 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Micah of Number One Observatory Circle, Shawn of the American History Podcast, Elizabeth of the FLOTUS Podcast, and Robin for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Bush, Barbara. Barbara Bush: A Memoir. New York: Lisa Drew Books, 1994.
  • Chambers, William Nisbet. “Election of 1840.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 643-684.
  • Cooper, John Milton, Jr. Woodrow Wilson: A Biography. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2009.
  • Ferraro, Geraldine A., and Linda Bird Francke. Ferraro: My Story. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1985.
  • Gould, Lewis L. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Murray, Robert K. The 103rd Ballot: The Legendary 1924 Democratic Convention That Forever Changed Politics. New York: Harper & Row, 2016 [1976].
  • O’Toole, Patricia. The Moralist: Woodrow Wilson and the World He Made. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1828.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 413-436.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1832.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 495-516.
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • Truman, Harry S. Memoirs by Harry S. Truman, Volume Two: Years of Trial and Hope. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1956.
  • Witcover, Jules. Party of the People: A History of the Democrats. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Wunderlin, Clarence E, Jr, ed. The Papers of Robert A Taft: Volume 2, 1939-1944. Kent, OH and London: Kent State University Press, 2001.

Featured Image: “A view inside the Interstate Exposition Building (known as the “Glass Palace”) during the [Republican National] convention” by C D Mosher [2 Jun 1880], courtesy of Wikipedia


S006 – It’s Convention Time!



Year(s) Discussed: 1824-1992

Since the first national party convention in the United States in September 1831, party conventions have played a key role in American politics. In this episode, we explore the role of these gatherings in determining presidential nominees as well as setting agendas through the party platform and examine a few notable conventions in detail. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Eleanor Roosevelt addresses Democratic National Convention, Chicago, Illinois. July 18, 1940,” courtesy of Wikipedia


3.20 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the English version of the intro quote for this episode!

  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To James Madison, 2 January 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0254. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 274–278.] [Last Accessed: 29 Jun 2020]
  • Davis, Edwin Adams. Louisiana: The Pelican State. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961 [1959].
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • DuBois, Laurent. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution & Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • Egerton, Douglas R. “’Fly across the River’: The Easter Slave Conspiracy of 1802.” The North Carolina Historical Review. 68:2 [April 1991] 87-110.
  • Eliot, Charles W, ed. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904, With Introductions and Notes. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1969 [1910].
  • Garland, Hugh A. The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1970 [1850].
  • “The Haitian Declaration of Independence.” Office of News & Communications, Duke University. https://today.duke.edu/showcase/haitideclaration/declarationstext.html. [Last Accessed: 21 Jun 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Albert Gallatin, 9 November 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0516. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, pp. 689–690.] [Last Accessed: 29 Jun 2020]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lerner, William, et al. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970: Bicentennial Edition, Part 1. Washington, DC: US Bureau of the Census, 1975. https://www.census.gov/history/pdf/histstats-colonial-1970.pdf. [Last Accessed: 11 Jul 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Sublette, Ned, and Constance Sublette. The American Slave Coast: A History of the Slave-Breeding Industry. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2016.
  • Turner, Lynn W. “The Impeachment of John Pickering.” The American Historical Review. 54:3 [April 1949] 485-507.

Featured Image: “Portrait of Thomas Worthington” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1815], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.20 – Action and Reaction



Year(s) Discussed: 1801-1804

As Jefferson’s first term entered its final year, numerous developments at home and abroad would start chains of reactions with long-reaching consequences. In the Caribbean, a nation declared its independence that would prove to be of particular concern to white Americans in the southern US. Meanwhile, Congress debated what kind of government to establish for the new lands west of the Mississippi River, and the Senate convened in the first impeachment trial in American history. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Représentation épique de Jean-Jacques Dessalines lors de la Révolution haïtienne de 1804,” courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.19 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Jacob Collier of the Podcast on Germany for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Armstrong, Thom M. Politics, Diplomacy and Intrigue in the Early Republic: The Cabinet Career of Robert Smith 1801-1811. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, 1991.
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1956.
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To Thomas Jefferson, 12 August 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0140. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 187.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2020]
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To James Madison, 17 December 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0182. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, p. 181.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2020]
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To James Madison, 20 December 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0187. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 188–189.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2020]
  • Clinton, DeWitt. “To Thomas Jefferson, 26 November 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0040. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 44–45.] [Last Accessed: 7 Jun 2020]
  • Einboden, Jeffrey. Jefferson’s Muslim Fugitives: The Lost Story of Enslaved Africans, Their Arabic Letters, and an American President. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Fedorak, Charles John. Henry Addington, Prime Minister, 1801-1804: Peace, War, and Parliamentary Politics. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2002.
  • George III, King of Great Britain. “To Thomas Jefferson, 16 September 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0289. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, pp. 387–388.] [Last Accessed: 23 May 2020]
  • Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800-1878. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.
  • Hatfield, Joseph T. William Claiborne: Jeffersonian Centurion in the American Southwest. Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press, 1976.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Cheetham, 17 January 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-36-02-0239. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 36, 1 December 1801–3 March 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, pp. 386–387.] [Last Accessed: 2 Jun 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William C. C. Claiborne, 18 July 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0052. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 84.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2020]
  • Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1993.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • King, Rufus. “To James Madison, 10 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-03-02-0143. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 3, 1 March–6 October 1802, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995, pp. 118–119.] [Last Accessed: 23 May 2020]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lester, Malcolm. Anthony Merry Redivivus: A Reappraisal of the British Minister to the United States, 1803-6. Charlottesvile, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1978.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To James Madison, 18 September 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0447. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 444–446.] [Last Accessed: 21 May 2020]
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Madison, James. “To Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe, 18 April 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0632. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 527–533.] [Last Accessed: 21 May 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To Edward Thornton, 5 August 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0297. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 281–283.] [Last Accessed: 8 June 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To William C. C. Claiborne, 31 October 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0602. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 589–592.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 19 June 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0123. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 103–105.] [Last Accessed: 21 May 2020]
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sedgwick, John. War of Two: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Duel That Stunned the Nation. New York: New American Library, 2016 [2015].
  • Wilkinson, James. “To Alexander Hamilton, 15 November 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0137. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 173–174.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2020]

Featured Image: “Portrait of Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, duc de Parme” by François-Séraphin Delpech after Nicolas Eustache Maurin [c. 1830], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.19 – The Not So Merry Merry



Year(s) Discussed: 1802-1803

The new British Minister to the US, Anthony Merry, arrived in Washington, DC in late 1803, and though his arrival was initially seen as a strengthening of British-American relations, it would soon prove to be quite the opposite. Meanwhile, the end of the year saw representatives of the Jefferson administration on both sides of the Atlantic assume new roles as well as Louisiana officially brought into the United States. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Dänische Post” by Johann Wilhelm Cordes [c. 1859], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


S005 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Bry and Fry of Pontifacts as well as Carrie and Alex for providing the opening quotes for this episode!

  • Brands, H W. Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. New York: Doubleday, 2008.
  • Chadakoff, Rochelle, ed. Eleanor Roosevelt’s My Day: Her Acclaimed Columns, 1936-1945. New York: Pharos Books, 1989.
  • Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
  • “Garner, John Nance (1868-1967).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=G000074. [Last Accessed: 12 May 2020]
  • Goodwin, Doris Kearns. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
  • Gould, Lewis L. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Hiltzik, Michael. The New Deal: A Modern History. New York: Free Press, 2011.
  • Ickes, Harold. The Secret Diary of Harold L Ickes, Volume III: The Lowering Clouds, 1939-1941. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955.
  • McCullough, David. Truman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
  • “McNary, Charles Linza (1874-1944).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=M000583. [Last Accessed: 10 May 2020]
  • Peters, Charles. Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing “We Want Willkie!” Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World. New York: PublicAffairs, 2005.
  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. “Address at University of Virginia, 10 Jun 1940.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/209705. [Last Accessed: 14 May 2020]
  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. “Radio Address to the Democratic National Convention Accepting the Nomination, 19 Jul 1940.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/209818. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2020]
  • Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. “Campaign Address at Boston, Massachusetts, 30 October 1940.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/209314. [Last Accessed: 16 May 2020]
  • Smith, Jean Edward. FDR. New York: Random House, 2007.
  • Stone, Irving. They Also Ran: The Story of the Men Who Were Defeated for the Presidency. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Co Inc, 1943.
  • “Taft, Robert Alphonso (1889-1953).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=T000009. [Last Accessed: 9 May 2020]
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • “Vandenberg, Arthur Hendrick (1884-1951).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=V000025. [Last Accessed: 10 May 2020]
  • Vandenberg, Arthur H, Jr., ed. The Private Papers of Senator Vandenberg. Joe Alex Morris, collab. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1952.
  • Whyte, Kenneth. Hoover: An Extraordinary Life in Extraordinary Times. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2017.
  • Willkie, Wendell L. “Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination in Elwood, Indiana, 17 August 1940.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/275905. [Last Accessed: 17 May 2020]
  • Witcover, Jules. Party of the People: A History of the Democrats. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Wunderlin, Clarence E, Jr, ed. The Papers of Robert A Taft: Volume 2, 1939-1944. Kent, OH and London: Kent State University Press, 2001.

Featured Image: “President Franklin D. Roosevelt seated at desk with microphones,” courtesy of Wikipedia


S005 – Unprecedented Part II



Year(s) Discussed: 1936-1944

With increasing uncertainty in the global situation and continued instability in the domestic economy, candidates lined up on both the Democratic and Republican sides to succeed Franklin Roosevelt at the end of his second term. However, 1940 found the President considering what was previously unthinkable: running for a third term of office. In this special episode, we explore this unprecedented election conducted under the looming threat of being drawn into a war waging abroad. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Wendell Willkie, President of the Commonwealth & Southern Corporation appearing before House Military Affairs Subcommittee” by Harris & Ewing [17 May 1939], courtesy of Wikipedia


Intelligent Speech Conference 2020



I will be presenting on the Rebellions of the Early Presidencies at the Intelligent Speech Conference on Saturday, June 27th, 2020. If you’d like to attend and hear from numerous educational podcasters and historians, be sure to go to www.intelligentspeechconference.com and select “Book Now” to get your online ticket. It should be a great conference, so I hope to see you there!


3.18 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Chris and Åsa of the Flatpack History of Sweden podcast for providing the intro quotes for this episode! Special thanks also to Alex for some last minute audio editing assistance!

  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1956.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Vintage Books, 1998 [1996].
  • Fischer, David Hackett. The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
  • Gaines, William H, Jr. Thomas Mann Randolph: Jefferson’s Son-in-Law. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.
  • Gallatin, Albert. “To Thomas Jefferson, 13 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0281. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 324–327.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Garland, Hugh A. The Life of John Randolph of Roanoke. St. Clair Shores, MI: Scholarly Press, 1970 [1850].
  • Gordon-Reed, Annette. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1997 [1997].
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Robert R. Livingston, 10 October 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-38-02-0435. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 38, 1 July–12 November 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011, pp. 476–477.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Albert Gallatin, 13 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0282. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 327–328.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Proclamation—Convening an Extra Session of the Congress, 16 Jul 1803,” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/204771. [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “III. Jefferson’s Revision of Original Draft, 12–17 July 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-40-02-0530-0004. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 40, 4 March–10 July 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, pp. 699–701.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William C. C. Claiborne, 18 July 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0052. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 84.] [Last Accessed: 6 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Wilson Cary Nicholas, 7 September 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0255. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, pp. 346–348.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 14 September 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-41-02-0283. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 41, 11 July–15 November 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 382.] [Last Accessed: 8 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Third Annual Message, 17 October 1803.” Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, eds. The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202655. [Last Accessed: 8 May 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Special Message, 21 October 1803.” Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/204966. [Last Accessed: 16 May 2020]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Kierner, Cynthia A. Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello: Her Life and Times. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lincoln, Levi. “To Thomas Jefferson, 10 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0261. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, pp. 302–305.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To Thomas Jefferson, 2 June 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-40-02-0352. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 40, 4 March–10 July 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013, pp. 470–474.] [Last Accessed: 8 May 2020]
  • Madison, James. ““Proposed Constitutional Amendment, [ca. 9 July] 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0198. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, p. 156.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To Robert R. Livingston and James Monroe, 29 July 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0271. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 238–240.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 30 July 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-05-02-0275. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 5, 16 May–31 October 1803, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Bradley J. Daigle. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000, pp. 248–250.] [Last Accessed: 3 May 2020]
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Featured Image: “William Duane” by Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin [c. 1802], courtesy of Wikipedia