All posts by presidencies

S001 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Ben of the Thugs and Miracles podcast, Emily and Kelley of the Wining About Herstory podcast, Dan, and Alex for their contributions to this episode!

  • Arnold, Peri E. “William Taft: Campaigns and Elections.” Miller Center, University of Virginia. https://millercenter.org/president/taft/campaigns-and-elections [Last Accessed: 8 Dec 2019]
  • Chase, James S. Emergence of the Presidential Nominating Convention 1789-1832. Urbana, IL; Chicago; and London: University of Illinois Press, 1973.
  • Gould, Lewis L. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Inaugural Address [4 Mar 1801].” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/201948. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2019]
  • Klar, Rebecca. “Hawaii GOP cancels presidential preference poll, commits delegates to Trump.” The Hill. 12 Dec 2019. https://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/474243-hawaii-gop-cancels-presidential-preference-poll-and-commits-delegates-to [Last Accessed: 4 Jan 2020]
  • Murray, Robert K. The 103rd Ballot: The Legendary 1924 Democratic Convention That Forever Changed Politics. New York: Harper & Row, 2016 [1976].
  • Pope, Michael. “A Look at How Presidential Candidates Get on Virginia’s Primary Ballot.” WVTF. 19 Dec 2019. https://www.wvtf.org/post/look-how-presidential-candidates-get-virginias-primary-ballot#stream/0 [Last Accessed: 4 Jan 2020]
  • Reagan, Ronald. “6 November 1984, Remarks at a Reelection Celebration in Los Angeles, California.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/260741. Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2019.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1832.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 495-574.
  • Stevenson, Adlai. “26 Jul 1952, Acceptance Speech at Democratic National Convention.” C-SPAN. https://www.c-span.org/video/?3392-1/adlai-stevenson-1952-acceptance-speech. [Last Accessed: 15 Dec 2019]
  • Taft, William Howard. “1 Aug 1912, Remarks Accepting the Presidential Nomination of the Republican Party.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/332424. [Last Accessed: 18 Dec 2019]
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • Witcover, Jules. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency 1972-1976. New York: Viking Press, 1977.

Featured Image: “Photo of John F. Kennedy arriving at the Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles in 1960” [13 Jul 1960], courtesy of Wikipedia


S001 – A History of Primaries



Year(s) Discussed: 1816-1976

Did you know that presidential primaries in the United States are a rather modern innovation and that for a long time, presidential primary winners often didn’t end up as the party’s nominee? Learn how the primary system came to be what it is today, the varying impacts it has had on presidential campaigns since its inception, and why it took so long to play a key role in choosing presidential nominees. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “For Auld Lang Syne” by Leonard Raven-Hill [May 1912], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.10 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Ben Bernier of the Thugs and Miracles podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode! Special thanks also to Alex for providing audio editing assistance for this episode!

  • Bell, Madison Smartt. Toussaint L’Ouverture: A Biography. New York: Pantheon, 2007.
  • Claiborne, William C. C.. “To James Madison, 29 October 1802 (Abstract),” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0069. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 67–68.] [Last Accessed: 13 Dec 2019]
  • DuBois, Laurent. A Colony of Citizens: Revolution & Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Eppes, Mary Jefferson. “To Thomas Jefferson, 24 January 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-36-02-0272. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 36, 1 December 1801–3 March 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, pp. 426–427.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2019]
  • Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800-1878. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Monroe, 10 January 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-39-02-0262. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 39, 13 November 1802–3 March 1803, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, p. 306.] [Last Accessed: 2 Dec 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Mary Jefferson Eppes, 3 March 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-36-02-0450. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 36, 1 December 1801–3 March 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, pp. 676–677.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Robert R. Livingston, 18 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-37-02-0220. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 37, 4 March–30 June 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, pp. 263–267.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Robert R. Livingston, 5 May 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-37-02-0338. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 37, 4 March–30 June 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, pp. 421–422.] [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2019]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Kierner, Cynthia A. Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello: Her Life and Times. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Madison, James. “To James Simpson, 21 October 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-04-02-0048. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 4, 8 October 1802 – 15 May 1803, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, Susan Holbrook Perdue, and Ellen J. Barber. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998, pp. 38–39.] [Last Accessed: 13 Dec 2019]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Riggs, John Beverley. “Finding Aid: Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours Papers.” Hagley Museum and Library. https://findingaids.hagley.org/xtf/view?docId=ead/LMSS_I.xml. [Last Accessed: 7 Dec 2019]
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.

Featured Image: “Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours”, courtesy of Wikipedia


3.10 – We Need to Talk



Year(s) Discussed: 1801-1803

As French First Consul Napoléon Bonaparte begins to shift the balance of power in the Western Hemisphere in his favor, President Jefferson works to counter these ambitions through diplomatic efforts in both Washington and Paris. Meanwhile, a Mediterranean power declares war on the US, and Jefferson’s powers of persuasion are put to the test when dealing with family matters. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool” by Thomas Lawrence [c. 1790s], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.09 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Abernethy, Thomas P. The South in the New Nation 1789-1819: A History of the South, Volume IV. Wendell Holmes Stephenson and E Merton Coulter, eds. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1961.
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Brown, Gordon S. Toussaint’s Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Fedorak, Charles John. Henry Addington, Prime Minister, 1801-1804: Peace, War, and Parliamentary Politics. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2002.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Robert R. Livingston, 18 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-37-02-0220. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 37, 4 March–30 June 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, pp. 263–267.] [Last Accessed: 24 Nov 2019]
  • King, Rufus. “To James Madison, 1 June 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0326. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 250–252.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2019]
  • King, Rufus. “To James Madison, 15 January 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-02-02-0577. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 2, 1 August 1801 – 28 February 1802, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993, pp. 399–400.] [Last Accessed: 30 Nov 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. Presidencies Podcast. 2017-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795-1805. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].

Featured Image: “Robert Livingston,” attributed to Gilbert Stuart [c. 18th century], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.09 – Yazoo to You Too



Year(s) Discussed: 1795-1802

While the Jefferson administration made a breakthrough in settling a long-standing dispute with the state of Georgia over its western land claims in 1802, the new US Minister to France, Robert Livingston, began his mission trying to get answers on the situation with the colony of Louisiana. Meanwhile, peace in Europe and a new phase of the conflict in Saint-Domingue threaten to upend Jefferson’s vision for the west. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Map of West Florida” [c. 1767], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.08 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Rob and Jamie of Totalus Rankium for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Danbury Baptist Association. “To Thomas Jefferson, [after 7 October 1801],” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0331. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 407–409.] [Last Accessed: 10 Nov 2019]
  • Fry, Michael, and Nathan Coleman. “To Thomas Jefferson, 17 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0376. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 457–458.] [Last Accessed: 12 Nov 2019]
  • Hall, Kermit L. “Circuit Riding.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 145.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Michael Fry and Nathan Coleman, 22 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0398. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 486.] [Last Accessed: 12 Nov 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “V. To the Danbury Baptist Association, 1 January 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-36-02-0152-0006. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 36, 1 December 1801–3 March 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 258.] [Last Accessed: 8 Nov 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McCook, Matt. Aliens in the World: Sectarians, Secularism and the Second Great Awakening. Florida State University. 2005.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 25 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-37-02-0265. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 37, 4 March–30 June 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, pp. 335–337.] [Last Accessed: 17 Nov 2019]
  • Neem, Johann N. “Beyond the Wall: Reinterpreting Jefferson’s Danbury Address.” Journal of the Early Republic. 27:1 [Spring 2007] 139-154.
  • Preyer, Kathryn. “Judiciary Acts of 1801 and 1802.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 474-475.
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Taylor, Alan. The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia 1772-1832. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2014 [2013].
  • Turner, Kathryn. “Federalist Policy and the Judiciary Act of 1801.” The William and Mary Quarterly. 22:1 (Jan 1965) 3-32.

Featured Image: “Indicium from one cent United States postal card of 1894 depicting Thomas Jefferson” by the US Post Office Department [c. 1894], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.08 – The Enabler-in-Chief



Year(s) Discussed: 1801-1802

The Democratic-Republican reform agenda moved beyond appointments as the Seventh Congress began its session. From the federal judiciary to the organization of the west, Jefferson wielded the soft power of the presidency in order to move ideas along. However, he would not be the only one working to shape the future of the government and the nation, and there was no guarantee as to whose vision would prevail. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Map of the United States exhibiting post-roads, the situations, connections & distances of the post-offices, stage roads, counties, ports of entry and delivery for foreign vessels, and the principal rivers” by Abraham Bradley Jr [1796], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.07 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Zach and Louren for providing the intro quotes for this episode! Learn more about Zach’s work in historical research by checking out my interview with him about the Polks.

  • Achenbach, Joel. The Grand Idea: George Washington’s Potomac and the Race to the West. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Duty, Honor, Country: A History of West Point. Baltimore, MD and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 [1966].
  • “An Act to establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and to repeal the acts heretofore passed on that subject.” Annals of Congress, 7th Congress, 1st 1329-1332. https://memory.loc.gov/ll/llac/011/0600/06621329.gif. [Last Accessed: 5 Nov 2019]
  • Balinky, Alexander. Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • “CLAIBORNE, William Charles Cole, (1775 – 1817).” http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000408. [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To Thomas Jefferson from William C. C. Claiborne, 27 November 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0559. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 732–734.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • Fenster, Julie M. Jefferson’s America: The President, the Purchase, and the Explorers Who Transformed a Nation. New York: Broadway Books, 2016.
  • Fischer, David Hackett, and James C Kelly. Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. Charlottesville, VA and London: University of Virginia Press, 2000.
  • Jackson, Donald. Thomas Jefferson & the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello. Urbana, IL; Chicago; and London: University of Illinois Press, 1981.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Philip Nolan, 24 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-30-02-0311. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 30, 1 January 1798 – 31 January 1799, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 425–426.] [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Inaugural Address [4 Mar 1801].” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/201948. [Last Accessed: 11 Aug 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William C. C. Claiborne, 13 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0427. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 560–562.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. Presidencies Podcast. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Madison, James. “To Winthrop Sargent, 16 June 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0407. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 320–321.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Meacham, Jon. Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Peters, Richard, ed. The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, Volume II. Boston: Charles C Little and James Brown, 1845. https://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes-at-large/6th-congress/c6.pdf [Last Accessed: 19 Oct 2019]
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “The American Soldier, 1805” by H Charles McBarron Jr [c. 20th century], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.07 – The Door to the West



Year(s) Discussed: 1798-1801

Jefferson and his administration early on focused their attention on the civilian and military operations in the western frontier of the US and worked through the year leading up to the convening of the first session of the Seventh Congress to determine who would stay and who would go. Meanwhile, despite his concerns about a standing army and navy, Jefferson also worked in his first year in office to establish two key supports for the US military establishment: a military academy and a dry dock. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: Portion of “The Treaty of Greenville” [c. late 18th century], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band