3.23 – Source Notes



Special thanks to James Early for providing the intro quote for this episode! Be sure to check out his work on the Presidential Fight Club, Key Battles of the Civil War, Key Battles of the Revolutionary War, and Key Battles of World War One series!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Alexander Hamilton, 18 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0203-0001. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 242–243.] [Last Accessed: 7 Sep 2020]
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Alexander Hamilton, 21 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0207. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 249–251.] [Last Accessed: 7 Sep 2020]
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Alexander Hamilton, 22 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0212. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 255–256.] [Last Accessed: 6 Aug 2020]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Crackel, Theodore J. Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801-1809. New York and London: New York University Press, 1987.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Aaron Burr, 20 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-26-02-0001-0205. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 26, 1 May 1802 – 23 October 1804, Additional Documents 1774–1799, Addenda and Errata, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979, pp. 247–249.] [Last Accessed: 7 Sep 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Mary Jefferson Eppes, 12 February 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-31-02-0313. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 31, 1 February 1799 – 31 May 1800, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. 367–369.] [Last Accessed: 6 Aug 2020]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lester, Malcolm. Anthony Merry Redivivus: A Reappraisal of the British Minister to the United States, 1803-6. Charlottesvile, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1978.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 26 December 1803,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 212–216.] [Last Accessed: 2 Sep 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 5 January 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-06-02-0264. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 6, 1 November 1803 – 31 March 1804, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, and Angela Kreider. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002, pp. 282–308.] [Last Accessed: 31 Aug 2020]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 15 April 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-07-02-0062. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 7, 2 April–31 August 1804, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, and Jeanne Kerr Cross. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 51–61.] [Last Accessed: 2 Sep 2020]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President Second Term, 1805-1809: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Five. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1974.
  • Sedgwick, John. War of Two: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Duel That Stunned the Nation. New York: New American Library, 2016 [2015].

Featured Image: “Elizabeth Hamilton” by James Sharples [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.23 – One Man Left Standing



Year(s) Discussed: 1803-1804

While diplomatic disagreements occupied the attention of the Jefferson administration, Vice President Aaron Burr was occupied with a dispute of a more personal matter in the aftermath of his failed gubernatorial bid. Alexander Hamilton’s opposition to his campaign did not go unnoticed, and Burr was determined to have Hamilton answer for his words, one way or another. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton.” [c. 1901], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.22 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode!

Previous Episodes Referenced in this Episode:

Sources Used:

  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997 [1996].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Fedorak, Charles John. Henry Addington, Prime Minister, 1801-1804: Peace, War, and Parliamentary Politics. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2002.
  • Gannon, Kevin M. “Escaping ‘Mr. Jefferson’s Plan of Destruction’: New England Federalists and the Idea of a Northern Confederacy, 1803-1804.” Journal of the Early Republic. 21:3 [Fall 2001] 413-443.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 9 April 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-07-02-0028. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 7, 2 April–31 August 1804, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Ellen J. Barber, Anne Mandeville Colony, Angela Kreider, and Jeanne Kerr Cross. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2005, pp. 25–26.] [Last Accessed: 27 Jul 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 17 April 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0222. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, p. 259.] [Last Accessed: 27 Jul 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 23 April 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0246. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, pp. 292–293.] [Last Accessed: 27 Jul 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Page, 25 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0542. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, pp. 652–653.] [Last Accessed: 27 Jul 2020]
  • Kierner, Cynthia A. Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello: Her Life and Times. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Moulton, Gary E. The Lewis and Clark Expedition Day by Day. Lincoln, NE and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2018.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].

Featured Image: “Martha Jefferson Randolph, daughter of Thomas Jefferson, informal First Lady, Smithsonian Institution” [c. 1836], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.22 – A Death in the Family



Year(s) Discussed: 1803-1804

While Vice President Burr worked to secure his political future in his bid for the New York governorship and New England Federalists plotted to separate from the Union, the Jefferson family suffered the untimely loss of one of its members in the early months of 1804. Meanwhile, across the Atlantic, both the British and the French governments went through reorganizations that would impact their relations with the United States for years to come. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “US postage stamp commemorating Monticello, Issue of 1956, 20c” by US Post Office [1 Jan 1956], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.21 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Matthew for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Allen, W B; and Seth Ames, eds. Works of Fisher Ames: Volume II. Indianapolis, IN: LibertyClassics, 1983 [1854].
  • Beach, Edward L. The United States Navy: 200 Years. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1986.
  • Bernhard, Winfred E A. Fisher Ames: Federalist and Statesman 1758-1808. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.
  • Brighton, Ray. The Checkered Career of Tobias Lear. Portsmouth, NH: Portsmouth Marine Society, 1985.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Clinton, George. “To Thomas Jefferson, 20 January 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0278. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 318–319.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jul 2020]
  • Dauer, Manning. “Election of 1804.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 159-169.
  • Eppes, John Wayles. “To Thomas Jefferson, 9 March 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0536. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 611–612.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jul 2020]
  • Ernst, Robert. Rufus King: American Federalist. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
  • Gannon, Kevin M. “Escaping ‘Mr. Jefferson’s Plan of Destruction’: New England Federalists and the Idea of a Northern Confederacy, 1803-1804.” Journal of the Early Republic. 21:3 [Fall 2001] 413-443.
  • “Intro.4 Ratification of Amendments to the Constitution.” Constitution Annotated: Analysis and Interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. https://constitution.congress.gov/browse/essay/intro-4/ALDE_00001236/. [Last Accessed: 26 Jul 2020]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William A. Burwell, 26 March 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-43-02-0087. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 43, 11 March–30 June 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2017, pp. 94–95.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jul 2020]
  • Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1993.
  • Kierner, Cynthia A. Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello: Her Life and Times. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McKee, Christopher. Edward Preble: A Naval Biography, 1761-1807. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996 [1972].
  • Randolph, Martha Jefferson. “To Thomas Jefferson, 14 January 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-42-02-0247. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 42, 16 November 1803–10 March 1804, ed. James P. McClure. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, pp. 278–280.] [Last Accessed: 26 Jul 2020]
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Chief Justice Theophilus Parsons” by Sarah Goodridge [c. 1820], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.21 – A Plotting We Will Go



Year(s) Discussed: 1803-1804

In the wake of multiple political losses in the first few years of the 19th century, as the election of 1804 neared, numerous Federalist leaders from New England began to consider the possibility of whether their prospects and those of their home region would be better served by breaking away from the United States. In the meantime, Commodore Edward Preble arrived in the Mediterranean to prosecute war against Tripoli while back in Albemarle County, the life of one of Jefferson’s family members hung in the balance. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Uriah Tracy” by Ralph Earl [c. 1790], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


Interview with Jeffrey Einboden, Jefferson’s Muslim Fugitives



Year(s) Discussed: 1776-1863

Interactions between people from various parts of the globe are a common occurrence in the 21st century, but though more infrequent in the late 18th and early 19th century, cross-cultural interactions in that time had a decisive impact. To explore this topic in the context of the life and presidency of Thomas Jefferson, I am joined in this special episode by Jeffrey Einboden, Presidential Research, Scholarship and Artistry Professor at Northern Illinois University and author of Jefferson’s Muslim Fugitives: The Lost Story of Enslaved Africans, their Arabic Letters, and an American President. In our conversation, Jeff explains how Jefferson interacted with Muslim individuals, both enslaved and free, as well as aspects of Muslim culture and scholarship in his lifetime and provides great insight on American interactions with the Middle East in the Early Republic. Additional resources for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Images: Jeffrey Einboden and cover of Jefferson’s Muslim Fugitives, courtesy of the author

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


From Me to All of You 2: A Quick Note



As we continue to face many challenges around the world, I wanted to send a quick note to all of you to hopefully provide some comfort as well as share a couple of updates about what’s coming with Presidencies. Take care, everyone!


S006 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Micah of Number One Observatory Circle, Shawn of the American History Podcast, Elizabeth of the FLOTUS Podcast, and Robin for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Bush, Barbara. Barbara Bush: A Memoir. New York: Lisa Drew Books, 1994.
  • Chambers, William Nisbet. “Election of 1840.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 643-684.
  • Cooper, John Milton, Jr. Woodrow Wilson: A Biography. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2009.
  • Ferraro, Geraldine A., and Linda Bird Francke. Ferraro: My Story. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1985.
  • Gould, Lewis L. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2020. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Murray, Robert K. The 103rd Ballot: The Legendary 1924 Democratic Convention That Forever Changed Politics. New York: Harper & Row, 2016 [1976].
  • O’Toole, Patricia. The Moralist: Woodrow Wilson and the World He Made. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018.
  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1828.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 413-436.
  • Remini, Robert V. “Election of 1832.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 495-516.
  • Tarr, David R, et al. Guide to U.S. Elections, Sixth Edition, Volume I. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
  • Truman, Harry S. Memoirs by Harry S. Truman, Volume Two: Years of Trial and Hope. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1956.
  • Witcover, Jules. Party of the People: A History of the Democrats. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Wunderlin, Clarence E, Jr, ed. The Papers of Robert A Taft: Volume 2, 1939-1944. Kent, OH and London: Kent State University Press, 2001.

Featured Image: “A view inside the Interstate Exposition Building (known as the “Glass Palace”) during the [Republican National] convention” by C D Mosher [2 Jun 1880], courtesy of Wikipedia