2.25 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Thomas Boylston Adams, 12 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0990. [Last Accessed: 9 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To Thomas Jefferson, 20 May 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-1268. [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To Thomas Jefferson, 25 October 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-0540. [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To James Madison, 1 August 1810,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-1838. [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Cotton Tufts, 26 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0827. [Last Accessed: 9 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Benjamin Stoddert, 31 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4900. [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Jefferson, 24 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0365. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 426.] [Last Accessed: 9 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To William Cranch, 23 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0969. [Last Accessed: 23 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Benjamin Rush, 6 February 1805,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5067. [Last Accessed: 20 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Mercy Otis Warren, 11 July 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5193. [Last Accessed: 20 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Mercy Otis Warren, 30 July 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5199. [Last Accessed: 20 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Benjamin Rush, 13 October 1811,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5695. [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Jefferson, 1 January 1812,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/03-04-02-0296-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 18 June 1811 to 30 April 1812, ed. J. Jefferson Looney. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 390–391.] [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Jefferson, 16 August 1813,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-6132. [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To John Quincy Adams, 18 March 1815,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-2809. [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Jefferson, 20 October 1818,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-7017. [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Cappon, Lester J, ed. The Adams-Jefferson Letters: The Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and Abigail and John Adams. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1987 [1959].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2001 [1993].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Holton, Woody. Abigail Adams. New York and London: Free Press, 2009.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Adams, 8 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0171. Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 213.] [Last Accessed: 9 Jun 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 13 June 1804,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-1280. [Last Accessed: 16 Jun 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Madison, James. “To John Quincy Adams, 16 October 1810,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/03-02-02-0735. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Presidential Series, vol. 2, 1 October 1809–2 November 1810, ed. J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992, pp. 582–583.] [Last Accessed: 22 Jun 2019]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Nagel, Paul C. John Quincy Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1997.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Warren, Mercy Otis. “To John Adams, 28 July 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-5198. [Last Accessed: 20 Jun 2019]
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “Benjamin Rush” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1818], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.25 – Adams Post-Presidency



Year(s) Discussed: 1801-1826

After leaving the presidency, John Adams searched for a path ahead. In the process, he dealt with emotions that had been building for years, rebuilt some bridges that had been burned in political battles, suffered numerous personal heartaches, and bore witness to a quarter century more of the nation’s history. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Portrait of John Adams” by Samuel Morse [c. 1816], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.24 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Shawn Warswick of the American History Podcast, Gary Girod of the French History Podcast, and Sam Hume of Pax Britannica for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Adams, Abigail Smith. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 8 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0807. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail Smith. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 15 January 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0856. [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail Smith. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 7 February 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0885. [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Elbridge Gerry, 30 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4732. [Last Accessed: 24 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Boylston Adams, 17 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0817. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To John Jay, 19 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4718. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Samuel Dexter, 2 January 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4742. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Jefferson, 20 February 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0020. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 23–24.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Christopher Gadsden, 16 April 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4907. [Last Accessed: 24 May 2019]
  • Adams, Thomas Boylston. “To John Adams, 14 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0811. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Burr, Aaron. “To Thomas Jefferson, 23 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0239. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 342–343.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jun 2019]
  • Cassell, Frank A. Merchant Congressman in the Young Republic: Samuel Smith of Maryland, 1752-1839. Madison, WI; Milwaukee, WI; and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1971.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cullen, Charles T, ed. The Papers of John Marshall, Volume IV: Correspondence and Papers, January 1799-October 1800. Chapel Hill, NC and Williamsburg, VA: University of North Carolina Press and Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1984.
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Dexter, Samuel. “To John Adams, 3 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4702. [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2001 [1993].
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Theodore Sedgwick, 10 May 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-24-02-0387. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 24, November 1799 – June 1800, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976, pp. 474–475.] [Last Accessed: 24 May 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 16 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0131. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 257–259.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Jay, John. “To John Adams, 2 January 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4745. [Last Accessed: 6 Jun 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Thomas Mann Randolph, 12 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0202. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, p. 300.] [Last Accessed: 24 May 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Aaron Burr, 15 December 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0208. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 306–307.] [Last Accessed: 5 Jun 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Monroe, 15 February 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0430. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, p. 594.] [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Wayles Eppes, 22 February 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0036. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 37–38.] [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linden, Frank van der. The Turning Point: Jefferson’s Battle for the Presidency. Washington, DC: Robert B Luce Inc, 1962.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • “THURSDAY,December 18 1800.” Senate Executive Journal. Library of Congress. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(ej001636)) [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • “TUESDAY,December 30, 1800.” Senate Executive Journal. Library of Congress. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(ej001636)) [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019
  • US Senate. “President Pro Tempore.” https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/briefing/President_Pro_Tempore.htm [Last Accessed: 8 Jun 2019]
  • “WEDNESDAY, December 31, 1800.” Senate Executive Journal. Library of Congress. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(ej001666)) [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • “WEDNESDAY,February 18, 1801.” Senate Executive Journal. Library of Congress. https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(ej001666)) [Last Accessed: 4 Jun 2019]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].

Featured Image: “Thomas McKean” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1797], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.24 – The 36th Ballot



Year(s) Discussed: 1800-1801

The nation had little time to process the news that Adams was defeated in his bid for reelection as a constitutional crisis developed regarding who would succeed him to the post. Meanwhile, the outgoing president only had a few weeks remaining to secure the ratification of the Convention of Mortefontaine, get several federal judges confirmed including a new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and get a new Treasury Secretary in place. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Front View of the President’s House, in the City of Washington” [c.1807], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.23 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Steve Guerra of the History of the Papacy and Beyond the Big Screen podcasts for providing the intro quote for this episode! As mentioned in the episode, Steve will be joining other podcasters at the Intelligent Speech Conference in New York City on June 29th, 2019. It’s sure to be a great conference, so make your plans to check it out!

  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 10 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0787. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2019]
  • Adams, Abigail. “To Mary Smith Cranch, 21 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0794. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To John Marshall, 30 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4553. [Last Accessed: 11 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Thomas Pinckney, 27 October 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4667. [Last Accessed: 13 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 2 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0784. [Last Accessed: 11 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “To Abigail Smith Adams, 15 November 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-03-02-0792. [Last Accessed: 15 May 2019]
  • Adams, John. “Fourth Annual Address to Congress, 22 November 1800.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/200693. [Last Accessed: 19 May 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Buchanan, James. “Alfred Moore.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 56-60.
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Moore, Alfred.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 560.
  • Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800-1878. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Pierce Butler, 11 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0055. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, p. 91.] [Last Accessed: 23 May 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linden, Frank van der. The Turning Point: Jefferson’s Battle for the Presidency. Washington, DC: Robert B Luce Inc, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Pinckney, Thomas. “To John Adams, 16 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4592. [Last Accessed: 13 May 2019]
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York & London: Simon & Schuster, 2002 [1981].
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Portrait of Aaron Burr” attributed to Gilbert Stuart [c. 1793 or 1794], courtesy of Wikipedia


2.23 – The Double-Edged Sword



Year(s) Discussed: 1796-1800

As the new federal capital comes alive with government officials and newspaper publishers moving in to be on hand for the congressional session opening in November 1800, President Adams waits with the rest of the nation to learn the results of electors being chosen across the United States. His path to reelection however grows ever darker due to a dispute with his running mate’s brother and a pamphlet released by Alexander Hamilton. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney” by James Earl [c. 1795], courtesy of Wikipedia


V003 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Jared Cohen for taking the time to speak with me for this interview and to Stephen Bedford of Simon and Schuster and Dan Keyserling, Jared’s scheduler, for all of your efforts in making arrangements for this interview to happen! Special thanks also to Les and Susan for your assistance in brainstorming questions!


V003 – Interview with Jared Cohen, Accidental Presidents



Year(s) Discussed: 1835-2009

In this episode, I talk with Jared Cohen, author of Accidental Presidents: Eight Men Who Changed America, about the presidents who came to the office due to the untimely demise of their predecessor and how their becoming president altered the course of US history. In this wide-ranging discussion, we assess some of the successes and failures of these presidents as well as the history of how constitutional questions related to succession were answered and what questions still remain. Images used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Jared Cohen” by Esther Nisanova


2.22 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Niall Cooper of the Assassinations Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Adams, John. “To John Marshall, 31 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4473. [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Brown, Ralph Adams. The Presidency of John Adams. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1989 [1975].
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cunningham, Noble E, Jr. “Election of 1800.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger, Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1971. 101-134.
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Ellsworth, Oliver. “To John Adams, 16 October 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Adams/99-02-02-4663. [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • Esdaile, Charles. Napoleon’s Wars: An International History. New York: Penguin, 2009 [2007].
  • Ferling, John. John Adams: A Life. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010 [1992].
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 1 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0004. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 4–5.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Samuel Dexter, 2 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0005. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, p. 6.] [Last Accessed: 23 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To John Adams, 1 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0036. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 51–52.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “To Oliver Wolcott, Junior, 3 August 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0039. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 54–56.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and the Ordeal of Liberty: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Three. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1962.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 9 September 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, version of January 18, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-32-02-0086. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 32, 1 June 1800 – 16 February 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 131–132.] [Last Accessed: 11 Apr 2019]
  • The national intelligencer and Washington advertiser. (Washington City [D.C.]), 04 May 1801. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83045242/1801-05-04/ed-1/seq-4/. [Last Accessed: 20 Apr 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Smith, Page. John Adams, Volume II 1784-1826. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1962.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toth, Michael C. Founding Federalist: The Life of Oliver Ellsworth. Wilmington, DE: ISI Books, 2018 [2011].
  • “Treaty of Alliance Between The United States and France; February 6, 1778.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fr1788-2.asp. [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • “Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between The United States and France; February 6, 1778.” The Avalon Project. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fr1788-1.asp [Last Accessed: 4 May 2019]
  • Wolcott, Oliver, Jr. “To Alexander Hamilton, 7 July 1800,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0018. Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 15–17.] [Last Accessed: 24 Apr 2019]

Featured Image: “The Signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine, 30th September 1800” by Victor Adam, courtesy of Wikipedia


2.22 – Enter the Federal City



Year(s) Discussed: 1799-1801

As President Adams and the federal government transition to the new federal capital, the next presidential election looms, and both Federalist and Democratic-Republican leaders work on behalf of their favored candidates to meet challenges to their prospects. While Federalists cope with an internal debate over exactly which candidate to support, Democratic-Republicans in Virginia work to cover up the involvement of French agents in Gabriel’s Rebellion. All the while, the US commission to France scrambles to conclude their work with a treaty in time for Adams and the Federalists to claim credit for winning the peace. Source notes for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “A view of the Capitol of Washington before it was burnt down by the British” by William Russell Birch [c. 1800], courtesy of Wikipedia