3.08 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Rob and Jamie of Totalus Rankium for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Danbury Baptist Association. “To Thomas Jefferson, [after 7 October 1801],” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0331. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 407–409.] [Last Accessed: 10 Nov 2019]
  • Fry, Michael, and Nathan Coleman. “To Thomas Jefferson, 17 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0376. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 457–458.] [Last Accessed: 12 Nov 2019]
  • Hall, Kermit L. “Circuit Riding.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 145.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Michael Fry and Nathan Coleman, 22 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0398. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 486.] [Last Accessed: 12 Nov 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “V. To the Danbury Baptist Association, 1 January 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-36-02-0152-0006. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 36, 1 December 1801–3 March 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 258.] [Last Accessed: 8 Nov 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McCook, Matt. Aliens in the World: Sectarians, Secularism and the Second Great Awakening. Florida State University. 2005.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 25 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-37-02-0265. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 37, 4 March–30 June 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, pp. 335–337.] [Last Accessed: 17 Nov 2019]
  • Neem, Johann N. “Beyond the Wall: Reinterpreting Jefferson’s Danbury Address.” Journal of the Early Republic. 27:1 [Spring 2007] 139-154.
  • Preyer, Kathryn. “Judiciary Acts of 1801 and 1802.” The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Kermit L Hall, ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 474-475.
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Deadlocked Election of 1800: Jefferson, Burr, and the Union in the Balance. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2010.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Taylor, Alan. The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia 1772-1832. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2014 [2013].
  • Turner, Kathryn. “Federalist Policy and the Judiciary Act of 1801.” The William and Mary Quarterly. 22:1 (Jan 1965) 3-32.

Featured Image: “Indicium from one cent United States postal card of 1894 depicting Thomas Jefferson” by the US Post Office Department [c. 1894], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.08 – The Enabler-in-Chief



Year(s) Discussed: 1801-1802

The Democratic-Republican reform agenda moved beyond appointments as the Seventh Congress began its session. From the federal judiciary to the organization of the west, Jefferson wielded the soft power of the presidency in order to move ideas along. However, he would not be the only one working to shape the future of the government and the nation, and there was no guarantee as to whose vision would prevail. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Map of the United States exhibiting post-roads, the situations, connections & distances of the post-offices, stage roads, counties, ports of entry and delivery for foreign vessels, and the principal rivers” by Abraham Bradley Jr [1796], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.07 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Zach and Louren for providing the intro quotes for this episode! Learn more about Zach’s work in historical research by checking out my interview with him about the Polks.

  • Achenbach, Joel. The Grand Idea: George Washington’s Potomac and the Race to the West. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Duty, Honor, Country: A History of West Point. Baltimore, MD and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999 [1966].
  • “An Act to establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and to repeal the acts heretofore passed on that subject.” Annals of Congress, 7th Congress, 1st 1329-1332. https://memory.loc.gov/ll/llac/011/0600/06621329.gif. [Last Accessed: 5 Nov 2019]
  • Balinky, Alexander. Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958.
  • Chernow, Ron. Washington: A Life. New York: Penguin Press, 2010.
  • “CLAIBORNE, William Charles Cole, (1775 – 1817).” http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=C000408. [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Claiborne, William C C. “To Thomas Jefferson from William C. C. Claiborne, 27 November 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0559. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 732–734.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • Fenster, Julie M. Jefferson’s America: The President, the Purchase, and the Explorers Who Transformed a Nation. New York: Broadway Books, 2016.
  • Fischer, David Hackett, and James C Kelly. Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. Charlottesville, VA and London: University of Virginia Press, 2000.
  • Jackson, Donald. Thomas Jefferson & the Stony Mountains: Exploring the West from Monticello. Urbana, IL; Chicago; and London: University of Illinois Press, 1981.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Philip Nolan, 24 June 1798,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-30-02-0311. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 30, 1 January 1798 – 31 January 1799, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003, pp. 425–426.] [Last Accessed: 14 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Inaugural Address [4 Mar 1801].” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/201948. [Last Accessed: 11 Aug 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William C. C. Claiborne, 13 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0427. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 560–562.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. Presidencies Podcast. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Madison, James. “To Winthrop Sargent, 16 June 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0407. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 320–321.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2019]
  • Meacham, Jon. Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Peters, Richard, ed. The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America, Volume II. Boston: Charles C Little and James Brown, 1845. https://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes-at-large/6th-congress/c6.pdf [Last Accessed: 19 Oct 2019]
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.

Featured Image: “The American Soldier, 1805” by H Charles McBarron Jr [c. 20th century], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.07 – The Door to the West



Year(s) Discussed: 1798-1801

Jefferson and his administration early on focused their attention on the civilian and military operations in the western frontier of the US and worked through the year leading up to the convening of the first session of the Seventh Congress to determine who would stay and who would go. Meanwhile, despite his concerns about a standing army and navy, Jefferson also worked in his first year in office to establish two key supports for the US military establishment: a military academy and a dry dock. Sources used in this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: Portion of “The Treaty of Greenville” [c. late 18th century], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.06 – Source Notes



Special thanks to E.M. Rummage of the Age of Napoleon podcast and Michael Troy of the American Revolution podcast for providing the intro quotes for this episode!

  • Armstrong, Thom M. Politics, Diplomacy and Intrigue in the Early Republic: The Cabinet Career of Robert Smith 1801-1811. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, 1991.
  • Balinky, Alexander. Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958.
  • Burr, Aaron. “Memorandum from Aaron Burr, [ca. 17 March 1801],” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0281. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 330–333.] [Last Accessed: 7 Oct 2019]
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. In Pursuit of Reason: The Life of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988 [1987].
  • Dearborn, Henry. “To Thomas Jefferson, 12 August 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0053. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 74.] [Last Accessed: 5 Oct 2019]
  • Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America’s Swiss Founding Father. New York & London: New York University Press, 2010.
  • Fischer, David Hackett. The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
  • Gallatin, Albert. “Albert Gallatin’s Report on Delinquent Collectors, 9 June 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0237. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 280–281.] [Last Accessed: 7 Oct 2019]
  • Gallatin, Albert. “Enclosure: Circular to Customs Collectors,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0486-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, p. 636.] [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2019]
  • Gallatin, Albert. “To Thomas Jefferson, 29 August 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0128. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 168–170.] [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2019]
  • Gallatin, Albert. “To Thomas Jefferson, 12 September 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0212. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 272–275.] [Last Accessed: 7 Oct 2019]
  • Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington: Village and Capital, 1800-1878. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962.
  • Habersham, Joseph. “To Thomas Jefferson, 14 September 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0224. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 291.] [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2019]
  • Habersham, Joseph. “To Thomas Jefferson, 21 September 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0262. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 330–331.] [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2019]
  • Hamilton, Alexander. “The Examination Number I, [17 December 1801],” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Hamilton/01-25-02-0264-0002. [Original source: The Papers of Alexander Hamilton, vol. 25, July 1800 – April 1802, ed. Harold C. Syrett. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977, pp. 453–457.] [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Gouverneur Morris, 8 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0047. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 64–65.] [Last Accessed: 29 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Nathaniel Macon, 14 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0083. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 109–110.] [Last Accessed: 13 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Notes on a Cabinet Meeting, 15 May 1801.” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0088. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 114–115.] [Last Accessed: 29 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William Jones, 16 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0094. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 123–124.] [Last Accessed: 29 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Yusuf Qaramanli, Pasha and Bey of Tripoli, 21 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0122. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 159–161.] [Last Accessed: 29 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Robert Smith, 9 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0409. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 534–535.] [Last Accessed: 1 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Samuel Smith, 9 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0410. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 535–536.] [Last Accessed: 1 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Albert Gallatin, 26 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0495. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 644–645.] [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Philippe de Létombe, 29 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0520. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 685–686.] [Last Accessed: 3 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Joseph Habersham, 4 September 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0161. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 209–210.] [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Albert Gallatin, 18 September 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0245. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 314–315.] [Last Accessed: 3 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Gideon Granger, 7 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0328. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 404–405.] [Last Accessed: 9 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Gideon Granger, 14 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0366. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 449–450.] [Last Accessed: 9 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Gideon Granger, 31 October 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0441. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 528–529.] [Last Accessed: 9 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Circular Letter from Thomas Jefferson, 6 November 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-02-02-0346. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 2, 1 August 1801 – 28 February 1802, ed. Mary A. Hackett, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne Kerr Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993, pp. 227–229.] [Last Accessed: 9 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Thomas Mann Randolph, 16 November 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0517. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, pp. 677–678.] [Last Accessed: 10 Oct 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “First Annual Message [8 Dec 1801].” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202536. [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2019]
  • Jones, William. “To Thomas Jefferson, 20 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0114. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, p. 150.] [Last Accessed: 29 Sep 2019]
  • Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1993.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. Presidencies Podcast. 2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lincoln, Levi. “To Thomas Jefferson, 14 August 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-35-02-0063. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 35, 1 August–30 November 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008, p. 88.] [Last Accessed: 5 Oct 2019]
  • “LIVINGSTON, Edward, (1764-1836).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000366. [Last Accessed: 7 Oct 2019]
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Years from Princeton to Vice President 1756-1805. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979.
  • “MACON, Nathaniel, (1757-1837).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000034. [Last Accessed: 10 Oct 2019]
  • Macon, Nathaniel. “To Thomas Jefferson, 20 April 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0539. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 620–621.] [Last Accessed: 13 Oct 2019]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Meacham, Jon. Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power. New York: Random House, 2012.
  • Smith, Samuel. “To Thomas Jefferson, 4 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0021. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 28–31.] [Last Accessed: 29 Sep 2019]
  • Stahr, Walter. John Jay: Founding Father. New York: Hambledon & Continuum, 2006 [2005].
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.
  • White, Leonard D. The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History 1801-1829. New York: The Macmillan Co, 1956 [1951].
  • Zahniser, Marvin R. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Featured Image: “Captain Richard Dale, USN” by Richard W Dodson [1865], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.06 – To Limited Arms



Year(s) Discussed: 1795-1801

Jefferson managed to get a permanent Secretary of the Navy just in time for Commodore Dale’s naval squadron to engage in combat in the Mediterranean. In addition to that key post being filled, the administration was able to make some additional structural decisions during the final months of 1801 in time for the new congressional session in December. Meanwhile, a new opposition was organized by a key Federalist leader to ensure that Jefferson’s first annual message would not go unquestioned. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “U.S. Schooner Enterprize Capturing the Tripolitan Corsair Tripoli, 1 August 1801” by William Bainbridge Hoff [1878], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.05 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode and to Chris Flynn of the Number 10 Podcast for providing insight on British and Irish affairs at the turn of the 19th century!

  • Allgor, Catherine. A Perfect Union: Dolley Madison and the Creation of the American Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 2006.
  • Ashley, Mike. A Brief History of British Kings & Queens: British Royal History from Alfred the Great to the Present. London: Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2002 [1998].
  • Callender, James T. “To James Madison, 27 April 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0167. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 117–121.] [Last Accessed: 20 Sep 2019]
  • DeConde, Alexander. The Quasi-War: The Politics and Diplomacy of the Undeclared War with France, 1797-1801. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1966.
  • DuBois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution. Cambridge, MA and London, England, UK: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005 [2004].
  • Dungan, Nicholas. Gallatin: America’s Swiss Founding Father. New York & London: New York University Press, 2010.
  • Ehrman, John. The Younger Pitt Volume III: The Consuming Struggle. London: Constable & Co, 1996.
  • Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.
  • Hill, Peter P. William Vans Murray, Federalist Diplomat: The Shaping of Peace with France 1797-1801. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1971.
  • Hilt, Douglas. The Troubled Trinity: Goody and the Spanish Monarchs. Tuscaloosa, AL and London: University of Alabama Press, 1987.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 30 April 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0179. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 126–127.] [Last Accessed: 9 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 28 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0162. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 200–201.] [Last Accessed: 20 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Mary Jefferson Eppes, 28 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0157. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 196–197.] [Last Accessed: 20 Sep 2019]
  • Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007 [2005].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • “MADISON, James, Jr., (1751-1836).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=M000043. [Last Accessed: 9 Sep 2019]
  • Madison, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 10 January 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/01-17-02-0300. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 17, 31 March 1797–3 March 1801 and supplement 22 January 1778–9 August 1795, ed. David B. Mattern, J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross, and Susan Holbrook Perdue. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, pp. 453–457.] [Last Accessed: 28 Aug 2019]
  • Madison, James. “To James Monroe, 1 June 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0321. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 244–246.]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 23 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/02-01-02-0288. [Original source: The Papers of James Madison, Secretary of State Series, vol. 1, 4 March–31 July 1801, ed. Robert J. Brugger, Robert A. Rutland, Robert Rhodes Crout, Jeanne K. Sisson, and Dru Dowdy. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1986, pp. 222–225.] [Last Accessed: 20 Sep 2019]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Stone, Geoffrey R. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime, From the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2004.
  • Toll, Ian W. Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. New York and London: W W Norton & Co, 2006.

Featured Image: “Manuel de Godoy” by Antonio Carnicero [c. late 18th/early 19th century], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.05 – Affairs, Foreign and Domestic



Year(s) Discussed: 1799-1801

The beginning of Jefferson’s administration coincided with changes in other parts of the world including France, Great Britain, Spain, and Saint-Domingue that would ultimately come to impact the United States. Meanwhile, as Jefferson continued to assemble his Cabinet, he and his administration also had to deal with a new round of negotiation with Napoléon’s government and appeasing an irate office seeker who threatened to expose the President to public scandal. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Le général Toussaint Louverture” [c. 19th century], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.04 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Moxie of the Your Brain on Facts podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode!

  • Appleby, Joyce. Thomas Jefferson. New York: Times Books, 2003.
  • Armstrong, Thom M. Politics, Diplomacy and Intrigue in the Early Republic: The Cabinet Career of Robert Smith 1801-1811. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, 1991.
  • Cassell, Frank A. Merchant Congressman in the Young Republic: Samuel Smith of Maryland, 1752-1839. Madison, WI; Milwaukee, WI; and London: University of Wisconsin Press, 1971.
  • Dangerfield, George. Chancellor Robert R. Livingston of New York, 1746-1813. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co, 1960.
  • Fischer, David Hackett. The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy. New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
  • Gallatin, Albert. “To Thomas Jefferson, 14 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0235. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 275–277.] [Last Accessed: 20 Aug 2019]
  • Hunt, Gaillard. “Office-Seeking during Jefferson’s Administration.” American Historical Review. 3:2 [Jan 1898] 270-291.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Robert R. Livingston, 24 February 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0058. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 61.] [Last Accessed: 20 Aug 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Philippe de Létombe, 5 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0140. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 181.] [Last Accessed: 17 Aug 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Notes on a Cabinet Meeting, 8 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0177. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 219–220.] [Last Accessed: 15 Aug 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Samuel Smith, 9 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0189. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 234.] [Last Accessed: 8 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William Findley, 24 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0367. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 427–428.] [Last Accessed: 22 Aug 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Samuel Smith, 24 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0378. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 438–439.] [Last Accessed: 8 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Samuel Smith, 26 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0398. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 456.] [Last Accessed: 9 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Benjamin Stoddert, 30 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0434. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 502.] [Last Accessed: 9 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To John Langdon, 23 May 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0133. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 172–173.] [Last Accessed: 8 Sep 2019]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To the New Haven Merchants, 12 July 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-34-02-0425. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 34, 1 May–31 July 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 554–558.] [Last Accessed: 17 Aug 2019]
  • “JONES, William, (1760-1831).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=J000258. [Last Accessed: 9 Sep 2019]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2018-2019. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • “LANGDON, John, (1741-1819).” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000067. [Last Accessed: 9 Sep 2019]
  • Livingston, Robert R. “To Thomas Jefferson, 12 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0215. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, p. 255.] [Last Accessed: 20 Aug 2019]
  • “LIVINGSTON, Robert R.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000372. [Last Accessed: 21 Aug 2019]
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President First Term, 1801-1805: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Four. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1970.
  • McCullough, David. John Adams. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
  • Monroe, James. “To Thomas Jefferson, 3 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0108. Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 126–128.] [Last Accessed: 17 Aug 2019]
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy: The Economic History of the United States, Volume II. White Plains, NY: M E Sharpe Inc, 1962.
  • New-York Evening Post. 8 Jul 1802. NYS Historic Newspapers. New York University. http://nyshistoricnewspapers.org/lccn/sn83030385/1802-07-08/ed-1/seq-3/ [Last Accessed: 18 Sep 2019]
  • Paullin, Charles Oscar. Paullin’s History of Naval Administration, 1775-1911. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute, 1968.
  • Seale, William. The President’s House: A History, Volume One. Washington, DC: White House Historical Association, 1986.
  • Smith, Samuel. “To Thomas Jefferson, 17 March 1801,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-33-02-0287. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 33, 17 February–30 April 1801, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 339–340.] [Last Accessed: 8 Sep 2019]
  • “THURSDAY,March 5, 1801.” Senate Executive Journal. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?hlaw:3:./temp/~ammem_J3a7:: [Last Accessed: 21 Aug 2019]
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists: A Study in Administrative History. New York: Macmillan Co, 1948.
  • White, Leonard D. The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History 1801-1829. New York: The Macmillan Co, 1956 [1951].

Featured Image: “Pierpont Edwards,” courtesy of Wikipedia


3.04 – A Deadly Revenge



Year(s) Discussed: 1801

Literally and figuratively, the new President worked to get his house in order following his inauguration. With a limited number of positions available and plans to shrink the size of the federal government even further, Jefferson set ground rules for his new administration to determine whether to retain Federalist office holders or oust them in favor of Democratic-Republicans. Despite a nod towards non-partisanship, Jefferson’s decisions were criticized by members of both parties. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “Elizur Goodrich,” printed in The Connecticut Quarterly, Jul/Aug/Sep 1898, courtesy of Wikipedia