SATT 005 – William Bradford



Tenure of Office: January 27, 1794 – August 23, 1795

Though William Bradford wasn’t Attorney General for long, he did have an impact on some key events in the Washington administration. With my special guest for this episode, we examine his life and career to understand what sort of a legacy Bradford left.

Thanks so much to my special guest for this episode, Jacob from the Podcast on Germany, and special thanks to Alex Van Rose for his audio editing assistance!

Featured Image: “William Bradford” by William E Winner [c. 1872], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.38 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Alycia of the Civics & Coffee Podcast for providing the intro quote for this episode and to Christian of Your Podcast Pal for his audio editing assistance with this episode!

  • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1999 [1971].
  • Armstrong, Thom M. Politics, Diplomacy and Intrigue in the Early Republic: The Cabinet Career of Robert Smith 1801-1811. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, 1991.
  • Asai, Alycia. “Banning the Trade, Not the Practice.” Civics & Coffee. 2 October 2021. https://www.civicsandcoffee.com/banning-the-trade-not-the-practice. [Last Accessed: 19 Oct 2021]
  • Balinky, Alexander. Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958.
  • Bell, J L. “Alexander Kerr and ‘the late distressing affair.’” Boston 1775. 28 Mar 2018. https://boston1775.blogspot.com/2018/03/alexander-kerr-and-late-distressing.html. [Last Accessed: 17 Oct 2021]
  • Brant, Irving. “Election of 1808.” History of American Presidential Elections 1789-1968, Volume I. Arthur M Schlesinger Jr, ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers and McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 185-221.
  • Crackel, Theodore J. Jefferson’s Army: Political and Social Reform of the Military Establishment, 1801-1809. New York and London: New York University Press, 1987.
  • Dorre, Howard, and Jessica Dorre. “Thomas Jefferson’s Deadly Lust for Wool.” Plodding Through the Presidents. 31 August 2021. https://www.ploddingthroughthepresidents.com/2021/08/thomas-jeffersons-deadly-lust-for-wool.html. [Last Accessed: 17 Oct 2021]
  • Hilt, Douglas. The Troubled Trinity: Goody and the Spanish Monarchs. Tuscaloosa, AL and London: University of Alabama Press, 1987.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Madison, 27 April 1795,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-28-02-0258. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 28, 1 January 1794 – 29 February 1796, ed. John Catanzariti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000, pp. 338–340.] [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Sixth Annual Message, 2 Dec 1806.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley. The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202839. [Last Accessed: 12 Oct 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Charles Thomson, 11 January 1808,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-7186. [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Thomas Mann Randolph, 26 January 1808,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-7278. [Last Accessed: 16 Oct 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Alexander Kerr, 7 February 1808,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-7364. [Last Accessed: 17 Oct 2021]
  • Johnson, David. John Randolph of Roanoke. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2012.
  • Kaminski, John P. George Clinton: Yeoman Politician of the New Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1993.
  • Kerr, Alexander. “To Thomas Jefferson, 4 April 1808,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-7784. [Last Accessed: 17 Oct 2021]
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2021. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President Second Term, 1805-1809: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Five. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1974.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • Perkins, Bradford. Prologue to War, 1805-1812: England and the United States. Berkeley, CA; Los Angeles, CA; and London: University of California Press, 1974 (1961)
  • Reiff, Jennie. “Thomas Jefferson’s Deadly Sheep.” Presidentress. 30 June 2016. http://www.presidentress.com/2016/06/thomas-jeffersons-killer-sheep.html. [Last Accessed: 17 Oct 2021]
  • Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. New York: HarperCollins, 1998 [1997].
  • Spivak, Burton. Jefferson’s English Crisis: Commerce, Embargo, and the Republican Revolution. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1979.
  • Tucker, Spencer C.; and Frank T. Reuter. Injured Honor: The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, June 22, 1807. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I. A March of Liberty: A Constitutional History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988.
  • US Congress. “An Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves into any Port or Place Within the Jurisdiction of the United States, From and After the First Day of January, in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Eight.” The Avalon Project, Yale University. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/sl004.asp. [Last Accessed: 8 Oct 2021]

Featured Image: “Tilsit” by Nikolas Gosse [c. 1807], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.38 – Electioneering



Year(s) Discussed: 1806-1808

As the 1808 presidential election neared, the infighting in the Democratic-Republican faction was exacerbated by not one but two challengers to Secretary of State James Madison’s candidacy – Vice President George Clinton and former US Minister to Britain James Monroe. Meanwhile, Napoleon’s constant wars in Europe continued to impact US foreign policy, and the Jefferson administration began a new round of negotiations with British envoy George Rose to seek a resolution to the crisis precipitated by the Chesapeake-Leopard incident while working out how to effectively enforce the Embargo Act. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “James Madison” by Gilbert Stuart [c. 1805-1807], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


SATT 004 – Thomas Jefferson



Tenure of Office: March 22, 1790 – December 31, 1793

We’ve spent a good amount of time in the narrative talking about Jefferson as the third US president, but in this episode, while also exploring his life and career as a whole, we focus in a bit on Jefferson’s tenure as Secretary of State in the Washington administration.

Thanks so much to my special guests for this episode, Howard and Jess from Plodding Through the Presidents!

Featured Image: “Portrait of Thomas Jefferson” by Charles Willson Peale [c. 1791], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.37 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Stacey of the History’s Trainwrecks podcast and Alex for providing the intro quotes and to Alex Van Rose for his audio editing work for this episode!

  • Armstrong, Thom M. Politics, Diplomacy and Intrigue in the Early Republic: The Cabinet Career of Robert Smith 1801-1811. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, 1991.
  • Beach, Edward L. The United States Navy: 200 Years. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1986.
  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1956.
  • Dye, Ira. The Fatal Cruise of the Argus: Two Captains in the War of 1812. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1994.
  • Feldman, Noah. The Three Lives of James Madison: Genius, Partisan, President. New York: Random House, 2017.
  • Gallatin, Albert. “To Thomas Jefferson from Albert Gallatin, 2 December 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-6885. [Last Accessed: 7 Oct 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Proclamation 14—Requiring Removal of British Armed Vessels From United States Ports and Waters, 2 Jul 1807.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202828. [Last Accessed: 26 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Clinton, 6 July 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5883. [Last Accessed: 28 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Proclamation—Convening an Extra Session of the Congress, 30 Jul 1807.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202905. [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Seventh Annual Message, 27 October 1807.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202886. [Last Accessed: 6 Oct 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Albert Gallatin, 3 December 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-6895. [Last Accessed: 22 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Special Message, 18 December 1807,” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/201921. [Last Accessed: 7 Oct 2021]
  • Johnson, David. John Randolph of Roanoke. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2012.
  • Ketcham, Ralph. James Madison: A Biography. Charlottesville, VA and London: University Press of Virginia, 1994 [1971].
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2021. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President Second Term, 1805-1809: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Five. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1974.
  • Malone, Dumas. The Sage of Monticello: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Six. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1981.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • McKee, Christopher. Edward Preble: A Naval Biography, 1761-1807. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996 [1972].
  • Monroe, James. “To James Madison, 8 October 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/99-01-02-2201. [Last Accessed: 3 Oct 2021]
  • Rodney, Caesar Augustus. “To Thomas Jefferson, 24 October 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-6643. [Last Accessed: 5 Oct 2021]
  • Tucker, Spencer C.; and Frank T. Reuter. Injured Honor: The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, June 22, 1807. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Featured Image: “Joseph Bradley Varnum,” courtesy of Wikipedia


3.37 – O Grab Me



Year(s) Discussed: 1806-1808

With a diplomatic resolution to the Chesapeake/Leopard affair looking increasingly unlikely and the threat of war looming, President Jefferson and his administration worked in late 1807 to devise an alternative to war while also preparing for the nation’s defense. Meanwhile, James Monroe’s frustrations continued in London while there was a shift in power in Congress. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “O Grab Me cartoon” [c. 1807], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


3.36 – Source Notes



Special thanks to Chris Fernandez-Packham of the Age of Victoria podcast for providing the intro quote and to Alex Van Rose for his audio editing work for this episode!

  • Gaines, William H, Jr. Thomas Mann Randolph: Jefferson’s Son-in-Law. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1966.
  • Giles, William Branch. “To Thomas Jefferson, 6 April 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5420. [Last Accessed: 31 Aug 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “22 Jan 1807, Message to Congress on the Burr Conspiracy.” Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202052. [Last Accessed: 1 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To James Monroe, 21 March 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5326. [Last Accessed: 6 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To William Branch Giles, 20 April 1807.” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5478. [Last Accessed: 19 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Hay, 19 June 1807.” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-5779. [Last Accessed: 19 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To George Hay, 4 September 1807,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/99-01-02-6320. [Last Accessed: 18 Sep 2021]
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “Seventh Annual Message, 27 October 1807,” Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, eds. The American Presidency Project. https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/node/202886. [Last Accessed: 19 Sep 2021]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2021. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Lewis, James E, Jr. The Burr Conspiracy: Uncovering the Story of an Early American Crisis. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2017.
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Lomask, Milton. Aaron Burr: The Conspiracy and Years of Exile, 1805-1836. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1982.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President Second Term, 1805-1809: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Five. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1974.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • Smith, Jean Edward. John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt & Co, 1996.
  • Stewart, David O. American Emperor: Aaron Burr’s Challenge to Jefferson’s America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011.
  • Tucker, Spencer C.; and Frank T. Reuter. Injured Honor: The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, June 22, 1807. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.
  • Wheelan, Joseph. Jefferson’s Vendetta: The Pursuit of Aaron Burr and the Judiciary. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2005.

Featured Image: “USS Chesapeake” by F Muller [c. early 1900s], courtesy of Wikipedia


3.36 – Trial



Year(s) Discussed: 1806-1807

Little did the Jefferson administration, while preparing to prosecute the former Vice President of the United States, Aaron Burr, for treason, that they would be faced at the same time with an external challenge that threatened to plunge the nation into war. In mid-1807, the President, his Cabinet, and the nation were all anxious for the latest information from the Burr trial in Richmond as well as whether Great Britain was truly declaring war on the US following the attack on an American naval vessel off the coast of Virginia. Sources used for this episode can be found at http://presidencies.blubrry.com.

Featured Image: “John Marshall” by Rembrandt Peale [c. 1834], courtesy of Wikipedia

Intro and Outro Music: Selections from “Jefferson and Liberty” as performed by The Itinerant Band


SATT 003 – Edmund Randolph



Tenure of Office: 26 September 1789 – 20 August 1795

Edmund Randolph served in not one but two positions in the Washington administration – as Attorney General then as Secretary of State. However, will that be enough to earn him a seat at the table of the Cabinet All-Stars? Listen to find out more about his life, career, and legacy!

Thanks so much to my special guest for this episode, Bry from Pontifacts!

Featured Image: “Edmund Randolph,” courtesy of Wikipedia


3.35 – Source Notes



Special thanks to my husband Alex for providing the intro quote for this episode and to Alex Van Rose for his audio editing work on this episode!

  • Dougan, Michael B. “Livingston, Henry Brockholst.” Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. pp. 507-508.
  • Ellis, Richard E. “Paterson, William.” Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. pp. 624-625.
  • Fenster, Julie M. Jefferson’s America: The President, the Purchase, and the Explorers Who Transformed a Nation. New York: Broadway Books, 2016.
  • Gaudioso, Peter. “Thomas Todd.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 76-80.
  • Harrison, Lowell H. John Breckinridge: Jeffersonian Republican. Louisville, KY: The Filson Club, 1969.
  • Hart, Stephen Harding; and Archer Butler Hulbert, eds. The Southwestern Journals of Zebulon Pike, 1806-1807. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.
  • HIckox, Charles F, III; and Andrew C Laviano. “William Paterson.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 36-40.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. “To Caesar A. Rodney, 24 April 1802,” Founders Online, National Archives, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Jefferson/01-37-02-0261. [Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. 37, 4 March–30 June 1802, ed. Barbara B. Oberg. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010, pp. 330–331.] [Last Accessed: 19 Aug 2021]
  • Landry, Jerry. The Presidencies of the United States. 2017-2021. http://presidencies.blubrry.com.
  • Leonard, Dick. A History of British Prime Ministers: Walpole to Cameron, Omnibus Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 [2014].
  • Linklater, Andro. An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson. New York: Walker Publishing Co, 2009.
  • Malone, Dumas. Jefferson the President Second Term, 1805-1809: Jefferson and His Time, Volume Five. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1974.
  • Masterson, William H. Tories and Democrats: British Diplomats in Pre-Jacksonian America. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1985.
  • McGrath, Tim. James Monroe: A Life. New York: Penguin Random House, 2020.
  • Orsi, Jared. Citizen Explorer: The Life of Zebulon Pike. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
  • Perkins, Bradford. Prologue to War, 1805-1812: England and the United States. Berkeley, CA; Los Angeles, CA; and London: University of California Press, 1974 (1961)
  • “Rodney, Caesar Augustus.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. https://bioguide.congress.gov/search/bio/R000377. [Last Accessed: 19 Aug 2021]
  • Shurtleff, Kathleen. “Henry Brockholst Livingston.” The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789-1995, Second Edition. Clare Cushman, ed. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc, 1995. p. 71-75.
  • Tachau, Mary K Bonsteel. “Todd, Thomas.” Hall, Kermit L, etc, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. pp. 876.
  • Tucker, Spencer C.; and Frank T. Reuter. Injured Honor: The Chesapeake-Leopard Affair, June 22, 1807. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Featured Image: “John Adair” by Nicola Marschall [c. 1908], courtesy of Wikipedia